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1Author    PetiaA. Dimitrova3, RenetaA. Toshkovab, EmiliaH. Ivanova3, ZvetankaH. Stefanova3, MariaB. Angelova3, PavlinaA. Dolashkac, W. VoelterdRequires cookie*
 Title    Superoxide Production by Phagocytes in Myeloid Graffi Tumor-Bearing Hamsters  
 Abstract    A progressive suppression of the phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages and poly-morphonuclears (PMNs) in hamsters with transplanted myeloid tumors was previously estab­ lished. The i.p. application of Cu/Zn SOD, isolated from the fungal strain Humicola lutea (H LSO D) (2 injections before and 5 injections after tumor transplantation) induced the mean survival time of the animals as well as a temporally stimulating action on the macro­ phage and PMNs phagocyting indices. In the present work, the superoxide production of peritoneal macrophages and PMNs during 30 days of tumor progression was followed. Effects of the application of H LSO D in an optimal protective dose on the superoxide production in peritoneal macrophages and blood PMNs were examined. The spontaneous and phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA)-inducible 0 2~ production in both types of phagocytes was 4-5-fold increased in tumor-bearing hamsters (TBH), as compared to the controls, at day 14 after tumor transplantation (the day of tumor appearance in transplanted animals). Furthermore, 0 2~ production was also similar to the control values for the following days of observation. H LSO D treatment of TBH induced a normalization of superoxide production in macro­ phages and PMNs. Therefore, the established decrease of superoxide anions in phagocyting cells of TBH indicates possible effects of HLSOD on the host antioxidant defense. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 55c, 799—805 (2000); received April 19/May 19 2000 
  Published    2000 
  Keywords    Superoxide Dismutase, Macrophages, Tumors 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/55/ZNC-2000-55c-0799.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2000-55c-0799 
 Volume    55 
2Author    MarcelA K Jansen, ChristoM. Alan, Yoseph Shaaltiel, Jonathan GresselRequires cookie*
 Title    Mode of Evolved Photooxidant Resistance to Herbicides and Xenobiotics  
 Abstract    A few species have evolved resistance to paraquat after repeated selection. As paraquat still inhibited N A D P reduction, we hypothesized that resistance might be due to (a) detoxification o f the paraquat-generated active oxygen species and (b) that resistant plants would have some cross resistance to other xenobiotic oxidants as well as to photoinhibition, which we subse­ quently demonstrated. The levels o f plastid isozymes o f the oxygen detoxification pathway: (CuZn) superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were genetical­ ly higher in the resistant than in the sensitive biotype o f C onyza bonariensis through the F2 generation. Resistance was suppressed by chelators o f copper and/or zinc. Intact chloroplasts from resistant plants had less membrane damage with and without paraquat, than those from sensitive plants. Resistant C onyza plants recover from paraquat inhibition o f photosynthesis in 3 -4 h in high light, whereas sensitive plants died. Both resistant and sensitive plants recov­ ered from paraquat in 3 -4 h in low light intensities. Paraquat-resistant Conyza plants were cross-tolerant to S 0 2, atrazine, acifluorfen and to photoinhibition. Drought-tolerant maize inbreds were cross-tolerant to paraquat, SO, and acifluorfen (compared to sensitive lines) and they also possessed higher levels o f (Cu/Zn) superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. The tolerance to oxidant stresses in C onyza and maize increases with plant age, suggesting that the shift to resistance is a constitutive, earlier expression o f the genes normally expressed later in development. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 463 (1990); received November 9 1989 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Paraquat, Acifluorfen, Atrazine, Photoinhibition, Superoxide Dismutase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0463.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0463 
 Volume    45 
3Author    SvetlanaB. Pashova3, LudmilaS. Slokoska3, PavlinaA. Dolashka-Angelovab, SpassenV. Vassilev3, PravdaD. Sheremetska3, MariaB. Angelova3Requires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration on Superoxide Dismutase Production by Humicola lutea Cells  
 Abstract    Cultures of the fungal strain H um icola lutea 110 were grown in a 3-1 bioreactor. Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration (D O) on cell growth, intracellular protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities (SO D and catalase) were investigated. Controlling DO from 20 to 60% lead to: (I). The lethal phase of growth was reached faster; (ii) strong reduction of the intracellular protein content, and (iii) increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. The most efficient SOD biosynthesis was achieved at the 1st maximum of activity in the culture grown under D O uncontrolled conditions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 1049—1054 (1999); received May 17/July 14 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Production, Filamentous Fungi, D issolved Oxygen 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-1049.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-1049 
 Volume    54 
4Author    Irmgard Ziegler, Wolfgang LiberaRequires cookie*
 Title    The Enhancement of C 0 2 Fixation in Isolated Chloroplasts by Low Sulfite Concentrations and by Ascorbate  
 Abstract    The enhancement of C 02 fixation in isolated, intact spinach chloroplasts by ascorbate or by low sulfite concentrations (< 1 m M) is strongly reduced or even abolished by the addition of super-oxide dismutase (SOD). By the use of 35S032_ it is demonstrated that the rate of sulfate formation is much lower than the sulfite induced increase in C02 fixation. This indicates that the superoxide radical is the chain initiating event; and, in parallel to ascorbate (Elstner and Kramer, 1973), the H S03' radical, acting as a Hill reagent for photosystem I, is reduced to sulfite in turn. The inhibi­ tory action of sulfite at concentrations > 1 m M is not relieved by SOD, since this effect is mainly based on a competitive inhibition of ribulosediphosphate carboxylase. SOD itself stimulates the C 0 2 fixation, if the reaction is started after 3 min of pre-illumination. This effect is discussed with respect to factors linked with the isolation procedure. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 634—637 [1975]; received July 2 1975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Chloroplasts, C 02 Fixation, Ascorbate Action, Sulfite Action, Superoxide Dismutase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0634.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0634 
 Volume    30