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1992 (2)
1985 (1)
1983 (1)
1Author    Margarete BorgRequires cookie*
 Title    A Comparison of Decoration Techniques for the Demonstration of Immunocomplexes by Scanning Electron Microscopy: Labeling of a Protein Antigen on the Surface of the Yeast Candida albicans  
 Abstract    The labeling of immunocomplexes for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a fairly new technique, and the various procedures, that have been proposed, have not yet been compared. Such comparative evaluation was performed with Candida protease as a target antigen. This secretory enzyme of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans can be localized on the surface of fungal blastopores and mycelia, both after growth in proteinaceous medium and upon infection of murine peritoneal macrophages. The presence of the protease antigen was confirmed by immunofluorescence and by immunoperoxidase-light microscopy. The decoration of protease — anti protease complexes for SEM was attempted with colloids derived from the immunoperoxidase reaction, by the immunogold technique, and by antibodies linked to beads of synthetic polymers (polystyrene, polymethacrylate, polyacrolein). In addition, inactivated Staphylococcus aureus was used, which binds to antibodies through its protein-A. The high resolution by SEM of surface structures was matched only by the colloid based decoration techniques. All conjugates with beads suffered from inconsistent binding, which did not correspond with the distribution of the surface antigen. The comparatively best result with beads was obtained with polystyrene (Latex). Colloid based techniques in addition allow for critical point drying, which cannot be applied to synthetic beads in the usual manner. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 539 (1985); received March 5 1985 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Labeling Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Candida albicans, Surface Antigen 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0539.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0539 
 Volume    40 
2Author    Kurt HängstRequires cookie*
 Title    and Chemistry and Morphology of Epicuticular Waxes from Various Organs of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider)  
 Abstract    The surface o f leaves and seed coats o f Jojoba is covered with sim ilar am ounts o f epicuticular waxes per surface area. The com position o f these waxes was analysed by chem ical methods, whereas their microscopic structures in situ were revealed by scanning electron m icroscopy. Differences in the chemical structure and com position o f the com plex m ixtures cause differences in the morphological appearance o f wax on the surface o f both organs. The predom inance o f saturated and long chain components in leaf wax results in a crystalline wax layer on this organ. In contrast, the seed coat carries a cover o f non-crystalline fluid consistency. The lower m elting point o f this wax mixture is caused by shorter chain and unsaturated com pounds predom inating on this organ. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 683—6 (1983); received June 7 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Jojoba, Epicuticular Waxes, Wax Morphology, Leaves, Stems, Pericarp, Seed Coats, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0683.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0683 
 Volume    38 
3Author    P.-GG. Ülz, E. M. Üller, T. H. Errm AnRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Composition and Surface Structures of Epicuticular Leaf Waxes from Castanea sativa and Aesculus hippocastanum  
 Abstract    Epicuticular leaf waxes of Castanea sativa and Aesculus hippocastanum contain the same lipids in form of homologous series o f hydrocarbons, wax esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and fatty acids in similar concentrations without any main component dominating. In Ae. hip­ pocastanum wax acetates are present, additionally. Both waxes are found to contain triter-penols and triterpenol esters in remarkable amounts. ß-Amyrin, a-amyrin and lupeol are pres­ ent in both plant waxes, in Ae. hippocastanum wax friedelanol and friedelanone, additionally. The epidermis o f both plants are covered with a thin continuous wax layer without crystal­ loids. But the adaxial leaf surface o f C. sativa shows granular wax sculptures and therefore a different micromorphological ultrastructure for both leaf sides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 661—666 (1992); received March 12/May 20 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Castanea sativa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Composition, Surface Structures, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0661.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0661 
 Volume    47 
4Author    P.-G Gülz, E. Müller, K. Schmitz, F.-J Marner, S. GüthRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Composition and Surface Structures of Epicuticular Leaf Waxes of Ginkgo biloba, Magnolia grandiflora and Liriodendron tulipifera  
 Abstract    Epicuticular leaf waxes of Ginkgo biloba, M agnolia grandiflora and Liriodendron tulipifera contain homologous series of hydrocarbons, wax esters, benzyl acyl esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols, and fatty acids. None of these lipid classes is found to contain any main component dominating. In addition to these usual wax lipids, in G. biloba leaf wax a secondary alcohol namely nonacosan-10-ol (15.0%), y-tocopherol (1.7%) and acetates (0.3%) is also present. The wax of L. tulipifera, however, contains hentriacontan-16-one (23%) and several triterpenols (10%), additionally. On G. biloba leaves a dense arrangement of tubular wax crystalloids are found on the lower as well as on the upper leaf surface. The openings of the tubules can be seen very well in the SEM figures at a magnification of 20000. The small tubules are a clear indication for the pres­ ence of nonacosan-10-ol as also reported previously for conyferyl waxes. Leaves of M . grandiflora have an abaxial epidermis with a continuous wax layer without any crystalloids or sculptures. The adaxial epidermis also shows a continuous wax layer but with little irregular granular sculptures. L. tulipifera leaves show an abaxial epidermis with a continuous wax layer superimposed by a dense arrangement of crystalloids in shape of angular rodlets which are composed of several piled up layers. The adaxial leaf surface is also superimposed with wax crystalloids, the rodlets of which, however, are not sculptured in such definite way. They usually appear melted up and also form granular sculptures. The wax crystalloids in shape of angular rodlets on the abaxial surface are formed by hentriacontan-16-one. The abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces show most different micromorphological wax ultrastructures, as shown for all trees studied. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 516—526 (1992); received February 4/May 20 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Ginkgo biloba, M agnolia grandiflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Com­ position, Surface Ultrastructures, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0516.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0516 
 Volume    47