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1994 (1)
1991 (3)
1Author    K. Öm Ívesa, K. Riton, K. HatziosbRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationships of Herbicide Safeners  
 Abstract    The discovery and commercial success of safeners against thiolcarbamate herbicide injury to corn has stimulated a rapid progress and opened new possibilities for further research and development in the last decade. Compounds with new chemistry, increased efficacy, and a broader selectivity spectrum were synthesized and developed for agricultural use. Structure-activity relationship studies helped to optimize their chemical properties and to understand their biological modes of action. Several examples indicate close similarity between chemical structures possessing herbicidal and safener properties. In some cases this differentiation may be marginal, as shown in crops pretreated with low herbicide doses leading to safening effects. In other examples, however, structural optima for safening and herbicidal efficacy can be clearly differentiated. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 798—804 (1991); received March 26 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Safeners, Chemical Properties, Structure-Activity Relationships 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0798.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0798 
 Volume    46 
2Author    FerencD. UtkaRequires cookie*
 Title    Bioactive Chemical Bond Systems in Safeners and Prosafeners  
 Abstract    Acetals and ketals involving a dichloromethyl group on their central carbon atom were found to be active or highly active as safeners of corn against thiocarbamate and chloroacet-anilide herbicide injury. A mechanism for the biotransformation of these compounds as pro­ safeners to the actual dichloroacetic ester safeners is proposed. Similarly, S-and N-analogues of the cyclic acetals (ketals) which show safener activity can also be considered as prosafeners because they can be converted in the biophase by the same mechanism into actual safeners such as dichloroacetic thiolesters or dichloroacetamides sup­ porting the bioactivation hypothesis. Characteristic bioactive chemical bond systems in safeners and prosafeners are suggested. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 805 (1991); received March 26 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Safeners, Prosafeners, Acetals, Ketals, MG-191 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0805.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0805 
 Volume    46 
3Author    DaleL. ShanerRequires cookie*
 Title    Mode of Action of Naphthalic Acid as a Safener for Imazethapyr  
 Abstract    The tolerance of maize to root-applied imazethapyr can be increased by pretreating plants with the potassium salt of naphthalic acid (NAK). This safening effect appears to be the result o f N A K stimulating the ability of maize to rapidly metabolize imazethapyr to 5'-hydroxy-ethyl-imazethapyr, possibly through a mixed function oxidase. The safening effect of N AK can be antagonized by 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a mixed function oxidase inhibitor. The increased rate of hydroxylation of imazethapyr to 5'-hydroxyethyl-imazethapyr immobilizes the herbicide in the root system which decreases the accum ulation of herbicide in the meriste-matic tissue. This decreased accumulation, in turn, lowers the phytotoxicity of imazethapyr on maize. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 893—896 (1991); received M arch 26 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Maize, Imidazolinone, Safeners, Naphthalic Acid, Naphthalic Anhydride, M etabolism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0893.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0893 
 Volume    46 
4Author    P. Eter, B. Öger, R. Osw, M. IllerRequires cookie*
 Title    Protoporphyrin Accumulation Induced by Peroxidizing Herbicides is Counteracted by Safeners  
 Abstract    A number of safeners like naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid anhydride (naphthalic anhy­ dride) or dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8-a-trimethylpyrrolo-[l ,2 a]-pyrimidine-6-(2 H)-one (BAS 145138) drastically decreased the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX induced by a peroxidative cyclic imide (chlorophthalim, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthal-imide), or p-nitrodiphenyl ether (acifluorfen methyl, 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoicmethylester). This effect was observed with etiolated maize and cress seedlings during a 16-h illumination period with these herbicides and 0.1 to 1 mM safener present. The safeners did not affect the inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the target enzyme of peroxidative herbicides. Mixed function oxidase inhibitors did not influence this safening effect. A microsome preparation from safener-treated maize seedlings did neither degrade protoporphyrin IX nor protoporphyrinogen IX. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 775—780 (1994); received October 13 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Peroxidizing Herbicides, Safeners, Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation, Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase, Mixed Function Oxidase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0775.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0775 
 Volume    49