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1Author    KlausP. Bader3, GeorgH. Schmid3, Günter Ruytersb, Wolfgang KowallikbRequires cookie*
 Title    Blue Light Enhanced Respiratory Activity under Photosynthetic Conditions in Chlorella; a Mass Spectrometric Analysis  
 Abstract    Mass spectrometric analysis shows that blue light enhances oxygen uptake during photo­ synthesis in Chlorella fusca. A ssays in which all o f the normal 160 2 o f air has been substituted by l80 2 permit discrimination between photosynthetic 0 2-evolution (measured as 160 2, i.e. mass 32) and 0 2-uptake (measured as l80 2, i.e. mass 36). A chlorophyll-free Chlorella kessleri mutant for which in earlier studies the occurrence o f blue light enhanced oxidative carbohy­ drate degradation has been demonstrated (W. Kowallik, H. Gaffron, Planta 69, 9 2 -9 5 (1966); W. Kowallik, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 33, 5 7 -7 2 (1982)) has been used for comparison in the present study. The light intensity dependencies o f the observed effect seem to differ in mutant and wild type cells. In the m utant a fluence rate o f 1 .5 -2 .0 (iE m "2-s_I o f blue light yields saturation, whereas in the wild type even ten times this value does not. A wavelength depend­ ence o f the effect measured with equal fluence rates at 422 nm, 457 nm, 488 nm, 555 nm and 649 nm shows maximal efficiency around 460 nm and no significant effect o f red light. This agrees with earlier studies on the chlorophyll-free mutant. As a result o f this correspondence, we think that the enhanced oxygen uptake during photosynthesis concerns oxidative carbohy­ drate degradation. The putative mechanism and significance o f the observed blue light en­ hanced respiration in photosynthesizing Chlorella are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 881—8 (1992); received October 21 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Blue Light, Respiration, Photosynthetic Conditions 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0881.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0881 
 Volume    47 
2Author    Anat Rozen, Mordechay Schönfeld, Elisha Tel-OrRequires cookie*
 Title    Fructose-Enhanced Development and Growth of the N 2 -Fixing Cyanobiont Anabaena azollae  
 Abstract    Fructose supported the heterotrophic growth of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae, isolated from the water fern Azolla filiculoides, and also enhanced its growth in the light by 2-3-fold. Fructose was taken up at a high rate in the light and in the dark, in an energy-dependent reaction. The photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the fructose grown cells were modified: 0 2 evolu-tion in vivo was decreased by 40%, while PS I activity and dark respiration were 2-3-fold higher than in autotrophically grown cells. These changes were accompanied by 2-3-fold increase in heterocyst differentiation and by a 4-fold stimulation of nitrogenase activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 408—412 (1988); received February 1 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Nitrogen Fixation, Symbiotic Cyanobacteria, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Heterotrophic Growth 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0408.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0408 
 Volume    43 
3Author    Yuko Fukushima3, Hamako Sasamotob, Shigeyuki Babac, Hiroshi Ashihara3Requires cookie*
 Title    The Effect of Salt Stress on the Catabolism o f Sugars in Leaves and Roots of a Mangrove Plant, Avicennia marina  
 Abstract    Respiration and related aspects of metabolism were investigated in the roots and leaves o f 2-year-old trees of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina in the presence o f 100, 250 and 500 mM NaCl. The rate of respiration o f leaves increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the incubation medium, but respiration of roots was not similarly affected. In order to examine the relative rates of catabolism of glucose by the glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (T C A) cycle and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (P P pathway), we determined the rates o f release of 14C 0 2 from [1-14C]glucose and from [ 6 -14C]glucose in segments of roots and leaves. The ratios of rates (C ^ Q) in roots varied from 0.30 to 0.44, while ratios of 0.85 to 0.99 were obtained when leaves were incubated in the presence o f various concentra­ tions o f NaCl. It appeared that the PP pathway was more involved in sugar catabolism in the roots than in the leaves of A. marina. Uniformaly 14C-labelled sucrose, incubated with segments of roots and leaves for 18 h, was converted to C 0 2, amino acids (mainly glutamine), organic acids (mainly malic acid), sugars and ethanol-insoluble macromolecules. The incorpo­ ration o f radioactivity into most of these components was not significantly affected by NaCl. However, in leaves (but not in roots) the release o f 14C 0 2 from [ U -14C]sucrose was en­ hanced by NaCl at 250 mM and 500 m M , while the rate o f incorporation o f radioactivity into macromolecules was reduced by high concentrations o f NaCl. Incorporation of radioactivity from [ U -14C]sucrose into malic acid was enhanced in both roots and leaves by an increase in the concentration o f NaCl from 100 mM to 500 mM (this concentrations is similar to that in sea water). Independent of the concentration of NaCl, more than half o f the radioactivity in the neutral fraction from leaves was incorporated into an unidentified sugar, while in the same fraction from roots, the radioactivity was associated with glucose, fructose and sucrose. On the basis o f these results, a discussion is presented o f the characteristics of catabolism of sugars in A. marina in relation to salt resistance. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 187—192 (1997); received October 29/November 25 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Avicennia marina, Grey Mangrove, Respiration, Sucrose, Catabolism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0187.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0187 
 Volume    52 
4Author    Zoltán Takács, Zsolt Csintalan, Zoltán TubaRequires cookie*
 Title    Responses of the Lichen Cladonia convoluta to High C 0 2 Level and Heavy Metal Treatment  
 Abstract    Despite of the downward acclimation of photosynthesis in C. convoluta, increased net photosynthesis and carbon balance can be anticipated in response to elevated atmospheric C 0 2 level. C 0 2 exchange measurement seems to be m ore indicative when detecting heavy metal stress than fluorescence parameters. Among these, the relative fluorescence decrease ratio (R F d 690) shows damage first, suggesting that the primary attack site for heavy metal ions is C 0 2 fixation and reaction centres are harmed last. Long-term elevated C 0 2 amelio­ rates partly this damage by improving C-balance to a greater extent in the heavy-metal stressed lichens. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 797—8 (1999); received November 15 1998/M arch 5 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Cadmium, Lead, Fluorescence, Respiration, Photosystem II 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-0797.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-0797 
 Volume    54 
5Author    Siegfried Scherer, Erwin Stürzl, Peter BögerRequires cookie*
 Title    Arrhenius Plots Indicate Localization of Photosynthetic and Respiratory Electron Transport in Different Membrane Regions of A nabaena  
 Abstract    Photosynthetic and respiratory electron-transport reactions by the blue-green alga, Anabaena variabilis, exhibit a strict temperature dependence in vivo as well as in the cell-free system. The ratio of respiratory oxygen uptake in the dark and oxygen evolution in the light is high after growth at low temperatures (20 °C) and low after growth under optimum temperatures (28 °C). Respiration and photosynthesis show different break temperatures in the Arrhenius plots. Increase o f growth temperature yields higher break points for photosynthetic or respiratory electron transport as well. These data are taken as evidence that photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains are embedded in different membrane areas. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 1036—1040 (1981); received July 271981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Photosynthesis, Respiration, Blue-Green Algae, Arrhenius Plots, Phase Transition Temperatures 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-1036.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-1036 
 Volume    36 
6Author    W. Olfram, R. UllrichRequires cookie*
 Title    Effects of Glufosinate on Anion Uptake in Lemna gibba G  
 Abstract    The duckweed Lem na gibba G 1 was used as a model to study inhibitory sites with the herbicide and glutamate analogue glufosinate (PPT). Growth and chlorophyll formation were partly inhib­ ited by 25 n-M, completely suppressed by 250 (im PPT. Photosynthesis showed partial inhibition within few hours, dark respiration (0 2 consumption) increased already within one hour. In the presence of 1 mM PPT in the light, the ammonium pool of Lem na increased to 600% within few hours, later to 1000%. The overall amino acid pool exhibited a slower increase to 300%, the nitrate pool only a slight increase, while total phosphate remained almost unchanged. In the dark all these effects were less pronounced than in the light. Nitrate, nitrite and phosphate uptake were partially inhibited by PPT, especially after 19 h PPT pretreatment. Nitrate reductase activity in vitro, after PPT treatment in vivo, showed an inhibition similar to that of nitrate uptake. Ammo­ nium was not taken up but released under the same conditions. The data are explained by a combined effect of PPT, by inhibition of glutamine synthetase leading to accumulation of ammonium from photorespiration and proteolysis, by membrane depolarization and inhibition of anion/proton cotransport, by secondary uncoupling of phosphory­ lation, and by secondary inhibition of nitrate reductase activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 44c, 33 (1989); received July 13/November 11 1988 
  Published    1989 
  Keywords    Ammonium Accumulation, Nitrate Reductase Activity, Nitrate Uptake, Phosphate Uptake, Phosphinothricin Photosynthesis, Respiration 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/44/ZNC-1989-44c-0033.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1989-44c-0033 
 Volume    44