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1Author    Achim StephanRequires cookie*
 Title    Varieties of Emergence in Artificial and Natural Systems  
 Abstract    In different disciplines such as philosophy o f mind, dynamical systems theory, and connec­ tionism the term 'em ergence' has different jobs to perform. Therefore, various concepts of em ergence are developed and examined. While weaker versions are compatible with prop­ erty reductionism, stronger versions are not. Within philosophy of mind, particularly within the qualia debate there is a need for a strong notion of emergence, while in discussions of emergent properties of connectionist nets or of dynamical systems one can do with weaker notions of emergence. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 639 (1998); received April 20 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Emergence, Reduction, Connectionism, Qualia, Synergetics 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0639.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0639 
 Volume    53 
2Author    W. N. Speckamp, J. Dijkink, P. Pasman, J. C. HubertRequires cookie*
 Title    Indole [3,2 gjindolizidines via Sodium Borohydride Reduction of Indolic Imides  
 Abstract    Acid-controlled sodium borohydride reduc-tion of imides followed by cyclisation of the carbinol lactams formed affords the title compounds in good yields. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 33b, 127—128 [1978]; received September 12 1977) 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Reduction, Imides, Cyclisation, Carbinol Lactam, Indole Alkaloids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/33/ZNB-1978-33b-0127_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1978-33b-0127_n 
 Volume    33 
3Author    Wolfgang Kaim, Peter Hänel, Hans BockRequires cookie*
 Title    Die Reduktion von Triphenylphosphan-Derivaten zu ihren Radikalanionen und zum Dibenzophosphol-Radikaldianion [1] The Reduction of Triphenylphosphane Derivatives to their Radical Anions and to the Radical Dianion of Dibenzophosphole [1]  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37b, 1382—1387 (1982); eingegangen am 20. August 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Triphenylphosphane, Dibenzophosphole, Reduction, Radicals, ESR Spectra 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/37/ZNB-1982-37b-1382.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1982-37b-1382 
 Volume    37 
4Author    Wolfgang KaimRequires cookie*
 Title    Zur Reaktion aromatischer Phosphanderivate mit Elektronen, III [1, 2] Phosphan-Borane, -Alane und -Gallane On the Reaction of Aromatic Phosphane Derivatives with Electrons, III [1, 2] Phosphane-Boranes, -Alanes, and -Gallanes  
 Abstract    The 1:2 molecular complexes formed from l,4-phenylenebis(dimethylphosphane) and boranes, trialkyl-aluminum and -gallium have been reduced by potassium in THF in the presence of a K + -complexing crown ether. The bis(borane) complex anion radicals proved to be quite persistent, whereas corresponding aluminum radical complexes could only be observed below 240 K. The bis(trimethylgallium) complex gave gallium metal on reduction with potassium. An ESR spectro-scopic comparison with the anion radicals of the free ligand, of corresponding chalcogenides, imines and phosphonium salts demonstrates negligible effects of P-complexation on the JI spin distribution but high sensitivity of the 31 P coupling constant towards coordination of electrophiles at the basic P(III) centers. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 40b, 61—66 [1985]; eingegangen am 1. Oktober 1984) 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Molecular Complexes, Reduction, Anion Radicals, ESR Spectra 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/40/ZNB-1985-40b-0061.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1985-40b-0061 
 Volume    40 
5Author    H. Ans-D, Ietrich Stachel, Jo Sef Schachtner111, Josef Seidel121Requires cookie*
 Title    Reduktion cyclischer Maleinsäurederivate Reduction o f C yclic M aleic Acid Derivatives  
 Abstract    A series of potentially cytotoxic a,/?-unsaturated 7 -hydroxy-butyrolactones, -lactams and -thiolactones has been synthesized via regioselective hydride reduction of the appropriate maleic acid anhydrides, imides and thioanhydrides. By this means a straightforward access to naturally occurring antibiotic narthigenine 2, its hitherto unknown thio-analogue 5b and higher substituted derivatives and analogues of 2 is presented. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51b, 409—416 (1996); eingegangen am 28. Juni 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Reduction, Narthigenine, Butyrolactones, Butyrolactams, Tetramic Acids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/51/ZNB-1996-51b-0409.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1996-51b-0409 
 Volume    51 
6Author    WolfgangK. Läuia, Susanne Schoger2, Martin NiegerbRequires cookie*
 Title    Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Perhydro-l,4-benzoxazino[2,3-n]phenoxazine  
 Abstract    The oxidation of fra«s-2-aminocyclohexanol with nitrobenzene in the presence of catalytic amounts of iron inter alia yields perhydro-l,4-benzoxazino[2,3-n]phenoxazine (1). This com­ pound has been characterized analytically, spectroscopically and by X-ray diffraction. It is postulated that the oxidation of the 2-aminoalcohol leads to the intermediate formation of a 1,2-dione. The direct synthesis of 1 from trans-2-aminocyclohexanol and 1,2-cyclohexandione supports this hypothesis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52b, 801—804 (1997); eingegangen am 14. Oktober 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Nitrobenzene, Reduction, Aniline, 2-Aminoalcohols, Catalysis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/52/ZNB-1997-52b-0801.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1997-52b-0801 
 Volume    52 
7Author    Yoshim Itsu Yamazaki, AkihikoM. Aruyam, Kuniaki Hosono, Takanori Higashihara, HarumI. KobayashiRequires cookie*
 Title    Asymmetrie Reduction of Synthetic Ketones by Marine Microorganisms  
 Abstract    Three strains o f bacteria reducing (trifluoroacetyl)ferrocene (3) to optically pure (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-l-hydroxyethylferrocene (4) and one bacterial strain reducing 3 to (5^)-4 o f moderate optical purity were isolated from sea-water collected at the coastal areas in Ibaraki prefecture o f Japan. The former three strains were identified as Micrococcus lylae, M icrococcus luteus, and D eleya marina and the latter as Bacillus licheniformis. These strains also asymmetrically reduced som e other synthetic ketones, e.g., 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (7) and phenyl tri-methylsilyl ketone (9). Further screening o f microorganisms capable o f reducing 3 was done with bacteria isolated from sea-water o f the deep sea (Okinawa trough, Japan trench, and Mariana trough) and o f the pelagic areas (Indian Ocean and South China Sea). M ost o f these marine strains preferentially reduced 3 to (/?)-4 similar to the coastal strains, but the frequency o f finding very highly enantioselective strains (i.e., those forming 4 o f > 90% e.e.) was remark­ ably high in several sites o f the deep sea and pelagic areas as compared with the coast and terrestrial environment. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 451 (1993); received December 23 1992/February 24 1993 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    M icrobial, Asymmetric, Reduction, Marine, M icroorganism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0451.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0451 
 Volume    48 
8Author    Hans-Adolf Arfmann, W. A. Olf-Rainer, G. Braham, BfRequires cookie*
 Title    Microbial Reduction of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids  
 Abstract    Several benzoic, cinnamic and phenylacetic acid derivatives were screened with 20 micro­ organisms, mainly fungi, for the reduction o f their carboxylic function. For all organisms sev­ eral compounds were reduced in fairly good yields up to 80% to the corresponding alcohol. N o general rule could be established, concerning the substitution pattern, as to which com ­ pounds were transformed to the alcohol. Generally the reactions were accomplished within 4 8 -7 0 h. Only minor, if any, side products were detected. Dicarboxylic acids, such as phthalic or phenylglutaric acids and similar com pounds could not be reduced by the microorganisms tested. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 52 (1993); received October 19/November 11 1992 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    Aromatic Carboxylic Acids, M icrobial Transformation, Reduction, A lcohol Formation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0052.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0052 
 Volume    48 
9Author    Wolfgang Buschlinger3, G.Erhard Vollmer3, HenrikW. AlterbRequires cookie*
 Title    The Mental Life o f Artifacts. Explications, Questions, Arguments  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 455—479 (1998); received May 5 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Algorithms, Artificial, Explanation of Mental Properties, Reduction, Realization vs Simulation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0455.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0455 
 Volume    53