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1998 (2)
1993 (2)
1Author    Achim StephanRequires cookie*
 Title    Varieties of Emergence in Artificial and Natural Systems  
 Abstract    In different disciplines such as philosophy o f mind, dynamical systems theory, and connec­ tionism the term 'em ergence' has different jobs to perform. Therefore, various concepts of em ergence are developed and examined. While weaker versions are compatible with prop­ erty reductionism, stronger versions are not. Within philosophy of mind, particularly within the qualia debate there is a need for a strong notion of emergence, while in discussions of emergent properties of connectionist nets or of dynamical systems one can do with weaker notions of emergence. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 639 (1998); received April 20 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Emergence, Reduction, Connectionism, Qualia, Synergetics 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0639.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0639 
 Volume    53 
2Author    Yoshim Itsu Yamazaki, AkihikoM. Aruyam, Kuniaki Hosono, Takanori Higashihara, HarumI. KobayashiRequires cookie*
 Title    Asymmetrie Reduction of Synthetic Ketones by Marine Microorganisms  
 Abstract    Three strains o f bacteria reducing (trifluoroacetyl)ferrocene (3) to optically pure (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-l-hydroxyethylferrocene (4) and one bacterial strain reducing 3 to (5^)-4 o f moderate optical purity were isolated from sea-water collected at the coastal areas in Ibaraki prefecture o f Japan. The former three strains were identified as Micrococcus lylae, M icrococcus luteus, and D eleya marina and the latter as Bacillus licheniformis. These strains also asymmetrically reduced som e other synthetic ketones, e.g., 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (7) and phenyl tri-methylsilyl ketone (9). Further screening o f microorganisms capable o f reducing 3 was done with bacteria isolated from sea-water o f the deep sea (Okinawa trough, Japan trench, and Mariana trough) and o f the pelagic areas (Indian Ocean and South China Sea). M ost o f these marine strains preferentially reduced 3 to (/?)-4 similar to the coastal strains, but the frequency o f finding very highly enantioselective strains (i.e., those forming 4 o f > 90% e.e.) was remark­ ably high in several sites o f the deep sea and pelagic areas as compared with the coast and terrestrial environment. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 451 (1993); received December 23 1992/February 24 1993 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    M icrobial, Asymmetric, Reduction, Marine, M icroorganism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0451.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0451 
 Volume    48 
3Author    Hans-Adolf Arfmann, W. A. Olf-Rainer, G. Braham, BfRequires cookie*
 Title    Microbial Reduction of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids  
 Abstract    Several benzoic, cinnamic and phenylacetic acid derivatives were screened with 20 micro­ organisms, mainly fungi, for the reduction o f their carboxylic function. For all organisms sev­ eral compounds were reduced in fairly good yields up to 80% to the corresponding alcohol. N o general rule could be established, concerning the substitution pattern, as to which com ­ pounds were transformed to the alcohol. Generally the reactions were accomplished within 4 8 -7 0 h. Only minor, if any, side products were detected. Dicarboxylic acids, such as phthalic or phenylglutaric acids and similar com pounds could not be reduced by the microorganisms tested. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 52 (1993); received October 19/November 11 1992 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    Aromatic Carboxylic Acids, M icrobial Transformation, Reduction, A lcohol Formation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0052.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0052 
 Volume    48 
4Author    Wolfgang Buschlinger3, G.Erhard Vollmer3, HenrikW. AlterbRequires cookie*
 Title    The Mental Life o f Artifacts. Explications, Questions, Arguments  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 455—479 (1998); received May 5 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Algorithms, Artificial, Explanation of Mental Properties, Reduction, Realization vs Simulation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0455.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0455 
 Volume    53