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1Author    Göran Löfroth, Rune WennerbergRequires cookie*
 Title    Methylation of Purines and Nicotinamide in the Rat by Dichlorvos  
 Abstract    Rats exposed to [14C-methyl]-dichlorvos excrete labelled 7-methylguanine, 3-methyladenine, and 1-methylnicotinamide in the urine. Dichlorvos (dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phos­ 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 29c, 651 [1974]; received May 8 1974) 
  Published    1974 
  Keywords    Dichlorvos, Methylation, Rat, Purines, Nicotinamide 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/29/ZNC-1974-29c-0651_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1974-29c-0651_n 
 Volume    29 
2Author    Dieter Müller-Enoch, Helmut Thomas, Heinrich OckenfelsRequires cookie*
 Title    Eine fluorometrische Bestim m ungsm ethode für m ikrosom ale M onooxygenase-A ktivität der R attenleber m it Scoparon als Substrat A Fluorom etric Test for Microsomal Monooxygenase Activity in the Rat Liver with Scoparone as Substrate  
 Abstract    A sensitive fluorometric test for the determ ination of m onooxygenase activity in liver microsomes from rats is described. The assay is based on the O -demethylation of 6,7-dim ethoxycoum arin (scoparone) to 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coum arin and 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin. Pretreatm ent of rats w ith phenobarbital or polycyclic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]p yren e, 3-methylcholanthrene) causes a significant increase in the am ount of microsomal dealkylation activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 481 (1979); eingegangen am 27. Februar 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Fluorom etric Test, M onooxygenases, Liver M icrosomes, Rats 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0481_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0481_n 
 Volume    34 
3Author    Wolf Strecker, Siegfried Silz, Gerhard Ruhenstroth-Bauer, Ingolf BöttgerRequires cookie*
 Title    Insulin und Glukagon im Blutplasma teilhepatektomierter Ratten Insulin and Glucagon in the Blood Plasma of Partial Hepatectomized Rats  
 Abstract    U p to 4 weeks after partial hepatectomy the concentrations o f im m unoreactive insulin and glucagon in the blood plasma of rats were determined. Furtherm ore we m easured the activity of acid phosphatase in the serum, the concentration of cyclic AM P in liver cells, the activities of acid phosphatase in whole liver cells and in the cytosol of liver cells after partial hepatectomy. 2 h after partial hepatectom y there was a decline of the concentration o f insulin in the plasm a to about 13% of the initial value. 12 h after surgery a 5-fold increase of glucagon was found in the plasma. Shortly after this cyclic AMP reached its highest concentration. The activity of acid phosphatase in the whole liver cells and in the cytosol decreases slightly in the first 24 h after surgery whereas there is an increase o f the activity of acid phosphatase in the serum. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 65—7 (1980); eingegangen am 2. M ärz/2. August 1979 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Rat, Partial Hepatectomy, Blood Plasma, Glucagon, Insulin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0065.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0065 
 Volume    35 
4Author    Michael KochRequires cookie*
 Title    How Can Adaptive Behavioural Plasticity Be Implemented in the Mammalian Brain?  
 Abstract    The adaptive control of behaviour requires brain mechanisms for the selection (i.e. activa­ tion and suppression) of responses, as well as mechanisms for the modulation o f the response vigour. The concept of motivation postulates the existence of brain centres that regulate the selection and strength o f behavioural responses. The present paper provides examples from the behavioural neurosciences for brain mechanisms that lead to adaptive changes of an organisms responsiveness to external stimuli. The mammalian startle response is a simple defensive behaviour which is mediated by an oligosynaptic pathway located in the lower brainstem. The startle response is enhanced by aversive states (fear, anxiety) and attenuated by appetitive states (pleasure), which can be regarded as an example of motivational priming. Furthermore, the startle response is inhibited by a weak sensory stimulus presented shortly before the startling stimulus. The suppression of startle by a prepulse is an example o f sen­ sorimotor gating, a principle that is important for the hierarchical organisation of behaviour. This paper describes the neuronal mechanisms underlying the modulation (prepulse inhibi­ tion and fear potentiation) of the startle response in rats, and discusses the possible adaptive significance of these different phenom ena of behavioural plasticity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 593—5 (1998); received April 2 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Amygdala, Fear, Rat, Sensorimotor Gating, Startle Response 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0593.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0593 
 Volume    53 
5Author    Bernd Dresow, Peter Nielsen, HellmuthC. Heinrich, <. F. Eh, K. N. Ih, N. H. 4feh, K. F. Eh, C. F. OralRequires cookie*
 Title    Efficacy of Different Hexacyanoferrates(II) in Inhibiting the Intestinal Absorption of Radiocaesium in Rats  
 Abstract    The inhibitory effect of various oral doses o f different hexacyanoferrate(II) compounds (H C F) and the influence o f the time interval o f HCF-administration on intestinal 134Cs-ab-sorption was studied in rats. O ptim um inhibition was obtained by administration of H C F to­ gether with or 2 min before oral ,34Cs loading. Using appropriate low amounts (0.1 -0.5 mg) o f the different H C F compounds, the inhibitory effect increased in the sequence K Z administra­ tion o f 5 mg (0.5 mg) o f K F e H C F , together with l34CsCl loading, reduces l34Cs-absorption from 41 % (control) to 0.8% (2.8%). Zinc-, copper-, cobalt, and nickel hexacyanoferrates(II), despite showing a high caesium sorption capacity in vitro, were less effective in rats and are not suited for in vivo application, also because they may produce toxic side effects. As a consequence, the orally administered colloidal-soluble iro n(III) hexacyanoferrates(II) (N H 4 Fe[Fe(CN)6] and KFe[Fe(CN)6]) have to be considered as the most valuable countermeasure against radiocaesium absorption for humans and domestic animals in the case o f a severe nuclear accident in the future. Manganese oxide, a non-hexacyanoferrate(II) compound with known in vitro caesium bind­ ing capacity, showed no inhibitory effect on radiocaesium absorption in rats. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 676—680 (1990); received September 4 1989/March 5 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    l34Caesium, Hexacyanoferrates(II), Rats, Radiocaesium Absorption, Manganese Oxide 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0676.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0676 
 Volume    45 
6Author    M. Einrad Boll3, L. Utz, W.D W Eberb, A., Stam Reas, PflbRequires cookie*
 Title    The Response of Rat Serum Lipids to Diets of Varying Composition or Contaminated with Organochlorine Pesticides  
 Abstract    The effects of different diets (high carbohydrate, high protein, high fat) and diets contami­ nated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and/or y-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) on the levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids were investigated in Wistar rats. Serum triglyceride levels differed significantly among the diets, while those of cholesterol and phospholipids were much less affected by the diet composition. A change in diet compo­ sition resulted in a gradual adaptation to the lipid levels characteristic of the new diet with major variations including oscillations. There was, however, no specific component of a diet that could be associated with any specific change in serum lipids. While feed deprivation decreased the serum lipids (40-65% in 3 days), refeeding the starved animals caused pro­ nounced increases of the lipids that were different among the diets. The response of the triglyceride levels was the strongest (up to 1 0 times the starvation levels) followed by those of the phospholipids (4-fold) and cholesterol (2.5-fold). Response of the triglyceride levels peaked within 1 or 2 days of refeeding, whereas those of cholesterol and phospholipids took 4 days to reach the maximum. Feeding PCB-contaminated diets increased the serum lipids in a dose-dependent manner (15-250 ppm). Higher PCB concentrations were increasingly inhibitory (350 ppm) or overtly toxic (> 400 ppm). Elevated lipids returned to the starting levels immediately after peaking (triglycerides) or only after several days (cholesterol, phospholipids) but with an earlier onset at lower PCB concentrations. Refeeding starved animals with PCB-contaminated diets also increased the serum lipids dose-dependently. Feeding lindane-containing diets (50-150 ppm) as well as refeeding animals with lindane diets resulted in a considerable increase of the triglyceride levels, while cholesterol and phos-pohlipids increased much less. Higher lindane concentrations (250 ppm) were inhibitory. The outcome on serum lipid levels on feeding diets contam inated with both PCBs and lindane was basically additive. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 91—100 (1996); received Septem ber 9/November 6 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Serum Lipids, Rat, Diet Composition Polychlorinated Biphenyls, y-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0091.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0091 
 Volume    51 
7Author    M. Nogues, A. Cuenda, F. H. Enao, C. Gutierrez-M, ErinoRequires cookie*
 Title    Ca2+ Uptake Coupled to Glycogen Phosphorolysis in the Glycogenolytic-Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Complex from Rat Skeletal Muscle  
 Abstract    The glycogenolytic-sarcoplasmic reticulum complex from rat skeletal muscle accumulates C a2+ upon stimulation of glycogen phosphorolysis in the absence of added ATP. It is shown that an efficient C a2+ uptake involves the sequential action of glycogen phosphorylase, phos-phoglucomutase and hexokinase, which generate low concentrations of A TP (approximately 1 -2 ^m) compartm entalized in the immediate vicinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum C a2+, Mg2+-ATPase (the C a2+ pump). The C a2+ uptake supported by glycogenolysis in this subcel-lular structure is strongly stimulated by micromolar concentrations of AMP, showing that the glycogen phosphorylase associated with this complex is in the dephosphorylated b form. The results point out that the flux through this compartmentalized metabolic pathway should be enhanced in physiological conditions leading to increased A M P concentrations in the sarcoplasm, such as long-lasting contractions and in ischemic muscle. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 591 (1996); received January 9/February 28 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    C a2 +-U ptake, Glycogenolysis, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Rat, Skeletal Muscle 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0591.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0591 
 Volume    51 
8Author    M. Stohrer3, A. Ndrea Eichinger3, M. Schlachter5, M. Stangassinger3, F. Hoffmann, -La Roche LtdRequires cookie*
 Title    Protective Effect of Vitamin E in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia  
 Abstract    Under certain pathological conditions such as cerebral ischemia and reperfusion the occur­ rence of free radicals is remarkably increased. However, only very little information is avail­ able on their quantitative relevance for the pathophysiology and final outcom e of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution o f oxygen radicals in the pathogenesis of a stroke. For this purpose a rat model for stroke was used. Two of three vitamin E deficient groups were repleted with different dosages of DL-a-tocopherylacetate. N o signs of vitamin E deficiency could be observed. However, the weight gain during reple­ tion was increased in the vitamin E repleted groups. Brain infarction was created by occlusion o f the right middle cerebral artery (M CAO) for two hours. After 24 hours the measurements o f infarct volum es were taken. The infarct volume of the group with the highest repletion dosage was significantly reduced by 81%. This was also expressed in a higher rate of gait disturbances after MCAO o f the deficient animals. The control of vitamin E status exhibited a similar repletion-dependent level in plasma and brain. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the generation of oxygen radicals occurring during reperfusion is an impor­ tant aspect of the pathophysiological mechanism in brain infarction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 273—2 (1998); received D ecem ber 19 1997/January 22 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Vitamin E, Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion, Rat, Brain Infarct Volume, Oxygen Radicals 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0273.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0273 
 Volume    53