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1Author    G. Brolo, DonaldE. IrishRequires cookie*
 Title    Alexandre  
 Abstract    Dedicated to Prof. Hitoshi Ohtaki on the occasion of his 60th birthday Raman spectra of aqueous pyrazine have been investigated in acidic media: HCl from pH = 4 up to 11 M; HC104 from 0.1 M to 12 M; H2S04 form 0.1 M to 18 M. From observation of the shifts of the bands from neutral solutions, it has been possible to identify bands uniquely characteristic of unprotonated pyrazine and its two protonated forms. The diprotonated form was only observed for high concentrations of HC104 and H2S04. From bandfitting of the spectral contours it has been possible to construct the species distribution diagram and estimate the pK values. Raman bands of the three species have been identified and assigned. The results are used to explain an unassigned band at 1235 cm-1, reported by several authors, in SERS from pyrazine on silver and gold elec­ trodes. R a m a n S p e c tr a l S tu d ie s o f A q u e o u s A c id ic P y r a z in e S o lu tio n s 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50a, 274—282 (1995); received October 31 1994 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Pyrazine, Pyrazinium, SERS, Raman spectroscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/50/ZNA-1995-50a-0274.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1995-50a-0274 
 Volume    50 
2Author    A. Chrissanthopoulos3, C. Pouchan3, G. N. Papatheodorou5Requires cookie*
 Title    Structural Investigation of Vanadium -Sodium Metaphosphate Glasses  
 Abstract    Paper presented a t the NATO A dvanced Study Institute, M ay 4-1 4 , 2001 (Kas, Turkey) The structure of the glass forming system (V20 5)x -(Na20 • P205)(1_^), (jc = 0-0.4), has been inves­ tigated using Raman spectroscopy. The stretching vibrations of various phosphate groups, connected to phosphorus or vanadium atoms, have been assigned. Variation o f the composition leads to structural changes where the sodium metaphosphate -P-O-P-chains break and then reconnect with the oxovana-dium units forming a -V-O-P-network structure. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56a, 773—7 (2001); received August 8 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Vanadium, Phosphates, Vanadium Glass, Raman Spectroscopy, Metaphosphates 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/56/ZNA-2001-56a-0773.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-2001-56a-0773 
 Volume    56 
3Author    Ralf Janda, Gert HellerRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigations of Solid Polyborates and their Aqueous Solutions by Raman Spectroscopy  
 Abstract    Raman spectra of solid H3B03, Na2[B405(0H)4] • 8 H20, K[B506(0H)4] • 2 H20 and Na[B(OH)4] were recorded between 300 and 1500 cm -1 as well as of borax in aqueous solutions as a function of concentration and pH. Because of better solubility in water, the Raman spectrum of ammonium tetraborate in aqueous solution was also recorded as a function of pH. For comparisons the Raman spectra of solid (NH4)2[B40s(0H)4] • 2 H20, /S-NH4[B506(0H)4] • 2 HsO, NH4[B506(0H)4] • 0,67 H20 and NH4[B506(0H)4] were con-sidered. In solution, all lines in the Raman spectra could be assigned and the degree of depolarization measured. The assigned Raman frequencies can be used for the identifica-tion of unknown B-0-lines and therefore of unknown borate or polyborate structures. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34b, 585—590 (1979); eingegangen am 27. November 1978/23. Januar 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Polyborates, Ammonium Borates, Sodium Borates, Raman Spectroscopy, Identification 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/34/ZNB-1979-34b-0585.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1979-34b-0585 
 Volume    34 
4Author    D. Schiel, W. Richter, G. DögeRequires cookie*
 Title    CH3F/CD3F System  
 Abstract    It has been proved with the aid of CH3F/CD3F mixtures that the remarkably large non-coincidence effect in the Raman scattering spectrum of the v 3 mode of liquid methyl fluoride is due to intermolecular vibrational coupling medi-ated mainly by transition dipole interaction. The amount of the effect and its temperature and mole fraction dependence are -at least qualitatively -in agreement with Logan's theoretical concept. The rather different behaviour of the isotopic species and the asymmetry and narrow width of the isotropic band, however, raise new questions which require further investigations. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45a, 1381—1382 (1990); received September 26 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Raman spectroscopy, Liquids, Intermolecular interactions, Isotopic dilution, Band shift 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/45/ZNA-1990-45a-1381_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1990-45a-1381_n 
 Volume    45 
5Author    Toshiyuki Takamuku, Kazumasa Yoshikai, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hisanobu WakitaRequires cookie*
 Title    Structure of Supercooled Aqueous Zinc(II) Bromide Solutions by Raman and X-Ray Scattering Methods  
 Abstract    The structure of aqueous zinc(II) bromide solutions with [H 2 0]/[ZnBr 2 ] molar ratios 5 and 10 in the supercooled state and at ambient temperature has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Raman spectra of glassy solutions have also been measured for comparison. The Raman and X-ray data suggest that tetrabromo and hexaaqua zinc(II) complexes are favoured in the supercooled and glassy state, while dibromo-and tribromozinc(II) complexes are formed as main species in the solutions at ambient temperature. Probably the reactions 2 [ZnBr 2 (OH 2)] + 2H 2 0 [ZnBr 4 ] 2 ~ + [Zn(OH 2) 6 ] 2 + 4[ZnBr 3 (OH 2)]~ + 2H 2 0 -> 3[ZnBr 4 ] 2 ~ + [Zn(OH 2) 6 ] 2 + occur in the supercooled and glassy solutions. These equilibrium shifts are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47a, 841—848 (1992); received April 24 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Supercooled solution, Zinc(II) bromide, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Structure 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/47/ZNA-1992-47a-0841.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1992-47a-0841 
 Volume    47 
6Author    Toshiyuki Takamuku, Mikito Ihara, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hisanobu WakitaRequires cookie*
 Title    Raman Spectroscopic and X-ray Diffraction Studies on Concentrated Aqueous Zinc (II) Bromide Solution at High Temperatures  
 Abstract    Raman and X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on an aqueous zinc (II) bromide solution with molar ratio [H20]/[ZnBr2] = 10 at 25 to 140 °C. The intensity of the totally symmetric Zn-Br stretching vibration (v^ for the dibromozinc(II) complex increased with increasing temper-ature while that for the tetrabromo complex decreased. A broad band assigned to the symmetric Zn-O stretching vibration (vj for the aqua zinc (I I) ion decreased in intensity with increasing temperature. The X-ray diffraction data revealed that the average number of the Zn-Br interactions within the zinc (II) bromo complexes does not change with temperature, whereas the number of Br • • • Br nonbonding interactions within the complexes decreases from 1.8 at 25 °C to 1.5 at 100 °C. From both Raman and X-ray data it is concluded that with increasing temperature the dibromo species is favored, whereas the tetrabromo and aqua zinc(II) species are unstable in the solution. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction data has shown that the mean Zn-Br bond length within the zinc (II) bromo complexes shortens gradually with increasing temperature, accompanied with an increase in the interligand Br • • • Br distance. This finding suggests that the Br-Zn-Br bond angle increases with decreasing Zn-Br distance for the lower zinc(II) bromo complexes. The equilibrium shift of the zinc (II) bromo complexes with temperature is discussed on the basis of ion-ion, ion-water, and water-water interactions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47a, 485—492 (1992); received November 27 1991 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Zinc(II)bromide, High temperature, Solution structure 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/47/ZNA-1992-47a-0485.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1992-47a-0485 
 Volume    47 
7Author    Toshiyuki Takam, KeisukeN. Akam Ura, M. Ikito Ihara, Hisanobu Wakita, Toshio YamaguchiRequires cookie*
 Title    Raman Scattering and X-ray Diffraction Studies on Zinc(II) Bromide Solutions in Methanol and N,N-Dimethylformamide in the Temperature Range 77-333 K  
 Abstract    n Z i n c (I I) B r o m i d e S o l u t i o n s i n M e t h a n o l a n d N , N -D i m e t h y l f o r m a m i d e i n t h e T e m p e r a t u r e R a n g e 7 7 -3 3 3 K The structure o f zinc(II) brom o com plexes in m ethanol and N,N-dim ethylformam ide (D M F) (molar ratio [solvent]/[ZnBr?] = 10, temperature range 7 7 -3 3 3 K) has been investigated by Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction. In the m ethanol solution symmetric Z n -B r vibrations (vt) o f the dibrom o-and tribrom ozinc(II) com plexes were observed at 209 and 184 c m " 1, respectively. With decreasing temperature the intensity o f the vx band decreased for the dibrom o and increased for the tribromo complex. In addition, the Vj band for the tetrabromo complex appeared in the supercooled and glassy methanol solutions. In the D M F solution only one band, assigned to both the dibrom o-and tribromozinc(II) com plexes, was observed. Its intensity did not change with temper­ ature. The X-ray diffraction data revealed that the average number of Z n -B r interactions within the zinc (II) bromo com plexes does not change with temperature while the number of nonbonding Br • • • Br interactions within the com plexes increases from 1.5 at 298 K to 1.9 at 243 K for the methanol solution and from 1.3 at 298 K to 1.8 at 243 K for the D M F solution. These Raman and X-ray results have confirmed that in both m ethanol and D M F solutions at high temperatures the dibrom o species is predominantly formed, whereas at low temperatures the tribromo com plex is favored, the tetrabromo species being formed only in the supercooled and glassy m ethanol solutions. The temperature dependent equilibrium shifts of the zinc(II) bromo complexes in the methanol and D M F solutions are discussed together with previously reported results for the aqueous phase. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49a, 1119 (1994); received O ctober 15 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Zinc(II) bromide, M ethanol, N, N -D im ethyl-formamide 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/49/ZNA-1994-49a-1119.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1994-49a-1119 
 Volume    49