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1Author    Z. NaturforschRequires cookie*
 Abstract    Three samples of Brazilian geopropolis, collected by three indigenous bee species, were investigated by GC/MS. More than 50 compounds were identified, mainly terpenoids and phenolics. The chemical composition of propolis gathered by different bee species was dif­ ferent. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 402 (1998); received February 11/March 24 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Geopropolis, Propolis, Polyphenols, Terpenoids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0402.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0402 
 Volume    53 
2Author    Ahm Ed, G. Hegazi, FatenK. Abd, El HadyRequires cookie*
 Title    Egyptian Propolis: 1-Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Composition of Upper Egypt Propolis  
 Abstract    The antimicrobial activity of four propolis samples collected from Upper Egypt against Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was evaluated. There was a variation in the antimicrobial activity according to the propolis origin. Banisweif propolis showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, but Fayoum propolis had moderate activity against all tested pathogens. Propolis collected from Assiut and Souhag gave lower antimicrobial activity. Propolis samples were investigated by GC/MS, 71 compounds were identified, 14 being new for propolis. Banisweif propolis is characterized by the presence of 7 caffeate esters and 4 triterpenoids. Fayoum propolis showed the highest amount of lactic acid and the presence of 3 chalcones. But Assiut propolis is characterized by the presence of 4 prenylated coumar-ates. Souhag propolis is characterized by the presence of 5 aliphatic dicarboxylic acids and some other new compounds to propolis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 82—88 (2001); received July 24/October 9 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Propolis, Polyphenols, Antimicrobial Activity 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0082.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0082 
 Volume    56 
3Author    V. Bankova3, R. Christov3, A. Kujumgievb, M. C. Marcuccic, S. Popov3Requires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Brazilian Propolis  
 Abstract    Four samples of Brazilian propolis were investigated by GC/MS of different fractions. 32 volatile compounds, (10 of them new for propolis), as well as 12 more polar compounds (one of them new for propolis) were identified. Antibacterial activity was found in some propolis fractions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 167 (1995); received January 10/January 20 1995 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Propolis, Polyphenols, Volatiles, GC/MS, Antibacterial Activity 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0167.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0167 
 Volume    50 
4Author    AlbrechtF. Kiderlen3, Oliver Kayserb, Daneel Ferreirac, H. Erbert KolodziejdRequires cookie*
 Title    Tannins and Related Compounds: Killing of Amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Release of Nitric Oxide and Tumour Necrosis Factor a in Macrophages in vitro  
 Abstract    The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potencies of a series of 28 polyphenols were evaluated in terms of extra-and intracellular leishmanicidal activity and macrophage activa­ tion for release of nitric oxide (N O), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-like properties. For this, several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for leishmaniasis in which murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (B M M $) were infected with the obligate intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani, an extracellular Leish­ mania proliferation assay, a fibroblast-lysis assay (TNF-activity), and a biochemical assay for NO. Except for gallic acid, its methyl ester, shikimic acid and catechin (EC50 2 5 .8 -6 7 .9 nM) all polyphenols tested significantly inhibited the intracellular survival of L. donovani amasti­ gotes (EC 50 0 .4 -1 3 .9 nM) when compared with the clinically used agent, sodium stibogluco­ nate (EC 50 10.6 nM). In contrast, none of the samples proved to be directly toxic for the extracellular promastigote form of the parasite. Noteworthy, the phenolic samples showed only moderate or no cytotoxicity against the murine host cells (EC 50 10 to >144 nM). A l­ though NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the induc­ ing potential of the test com pounds for its release was found to be very moderate ranging from 7 -5 4 jam (IFN-y/LPS 119 (.im). On the other hand, inhibition of NO production had no apparent effect on intracellular leishmanicidal activity of polyphenols. Their in vitro TNF-inducing potential producing 50% lysis in murine L929 cells increased in the order o f simple phenols and flavanols (3 4 -4 8 U /m l) < A -type proanthocyanidins (5 3 -8 0 U/m l) < B-type proanthocyanidins (6 4 -2 0 0 U /m l) < hydrolyzable tannins (2 8 7 -3 5 0 U/ml) at the host cell subtoxic concentration of 50 ^g/ml. Furthermore, gallic acid and some hydrolyzable tannins showed appreciable IFN-like activities (1 4 -2 3 U/m l) as reflected by inhibition of the cyto-pathic effect of encephalom yocarditis virus on fibroblast L 929 cells. The results provide a rational basis for the recorded anti-infectious efficacy o f traditionally used herbal medicines containing tannins in vivo, in the light of both only moderate direct antimicrobial activities of distinct polyphenols in vitro and the limited knowledge on their uptake in humans. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 444 (2001); received February 9/March 8 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Polyphenols, Leishmania don ovan i, Immunomodulation, Tumour Necrosis Factor 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0444.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0444 
 Volume    56 
5Author    K.-H Knobloch, J. BerlinRequires cookie*
 Title    Influence of Medium Composition on the Formation of Secondary Compounds in Cell Suspension Cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don  
 Abstract    Cell suspension cultures o f Catharanthus roseus have been subjected to various m edia condi­ tions in order to stim ulate the formation o f indole alkaloids. H igh ajmalicine contents (up to 0.5 m g/g cell fresh weight) were achieved by transferring 2-week-old cell suspensions to a 10-fold volum e o f a 8% sucrose solution. The alkaloid accum ulation started two days after the transfer and reached a plateau after ten days. Furthermore an enhanced level o f phenolic com pounds was found, whereas growth o f the culture was low. The accumulation o f both, alkaloids and poly­ phenols was stimulated by high concentrations o f sucrose and low concentrations o f nitrogen con­ taining salts and phosphate. W hen these m inerals were added to the sucrose solution in con­ centrations com m only used for cell culture m edia, the accum ulation o f alkaloids and phenolic compounds was largely suppressed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 551 (1980); received March 31 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Catharanthus roseus, Cell Suspension Cultures, A lkaloids, Polyphenols, M edia Effects 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0551.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0551 
 Volume    35