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1Author    Ann Herm, Elisabeth Esterbauer, D. Schwarzl, Ieter GrillRequires cookie*
 Title    Umbelliferone in Needles of Picea abies  
 Abstract    A compound showing blue fluorescence under UV-light was isolated from spruce needles and identified as umbelliferone. Structure analysis was based on UV and mass spectroscopy as well as chromatographic comparison with authentic material. Quantitative evaluation by direct measure­ ment of the fluorescence of the umbelliferone spot separated by TLC revealed that the umbelliferone content shows great variation within different individual trees ranging from 0 .42-42 (ig/g fresh weight. Only minute amounts are present as free umbelliferone while the abundant part is present as /?-glucoside. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 682 (1980); received May 12 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Umbelliferone, Quantitative Estimation, Picea abies, Genetic Families 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0682.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0682 
 Volume    35 
2Author    ChristineA. Kraus, Gerhard SpitellerRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds from Ageing Shoots of Picea abies  
 Abstract    The influence of ageing on the amount and composition of phenolic compounds and their glucosides was studied in one to five-year-old shoots of Picea abies. The total content of phenolics increased remarkably within the first two years of growth. In this period cinnamic acid derivatives were dominating, but beginning with the end of the first vegetation period a dramatic increase of acetophenones was observed. Obviously at the end of the first vegetation period the cinnamic acid derivatives are subjected to oxidation resulting in an increase of acetophenones. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 308 (1997); received Decem ber 19 1996/January 23 1997 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Picea abies, Ageing, Phenolics, Phenolic Glucosides, Quantification by GC-MS 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0308.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0308 
 Volume    52 
3Author    Hartwig Hohlfeld1 ', Cornelius Lützb, Dieter StrackaRequires cookie*
 Title    Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity in Norway Spruce Needles: Effects of Air Pollutants under Controlled Conditions  
 Abstract    The effect of mixtures of air pollutants (S 02, N 0 2, O,) on phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase; EC 4.1.1.31) activities from needles of four-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in closed fumi­ gation chambers were analyzed. Three months exposure to high concentrations of 0 3 (1030 |ig/m3) together with S 0 2 (1030 |ig/m3) or N 0 2 (615 |ig/m?) resulted in a dra­ matic increase in PEPCase activities. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 502—505 (1991); received January 25/March 51991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Picea abies, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCase), Forest Decline, Air Pollutants, Phytotron 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0502_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0502_n 
 Volume    46 
4Author    Andreas Rieger, M. Artin, G. Uttenberger, Rüdiger HamRequires cookie*
 Title    Soluble Carbohydrates in Mycorrhized and Non-Mycorrhized Fine Roots of Spruce Seedlings  
 Abstract    We present results on the com partm entation o f carbohydrates such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, and mannose in different parts o f an ectom ycorrhiza established between Picea abies and Amanita muscaria and compare it with non-m ycorrhized fine roots. Lyophilized mycor-rhizas and fine roots (< 2 m m length) were dissected into about 0.5 mm thick slices which represent 4 zones o f different physiological functions. The total amount o f the analyzed carbo­ hydrates was about 30% higher in non-m ycorrhized (n-myc) compared to mycorrhized (myc) fine roots, with sucrose being the dom inating sugar in both root types. A longitudinal distinc­ tion o f sucrose pools showed lowest levels in the m iddle parts o f a mycorrhiza, which represent areas o f most intense sym biotic interaction. Fine roots without fungal infection did not show longitudinal variations in sugar content. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 201—2 (1992); received N ovem ber 21 1991 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Amanita muscaria, Ectomycorrhiza, Picea abies, Plant Sugars, Tissue-Specific Compartmenta-tion 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0201.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0201 
 Volume    47 
5Author    ChristineM. Richter, Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds in Needles of Norway Spruce Trees in Relation to Novel Forest Decline. II. Studies on Trees from Two Sites in Middle Western Germany  
 Abstract    The content of several phenolic compounds in needles of 20-to 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) was measured using HPLC. The results of two forestry sites in middle western Germany are reported in this paper. They are part of a research programme on novel forest decline which was carried out in various regions of Germany. Distinct amounts of picein, catechin, piceatannol glucoside, and other phenolic compounds were detected in the studied spruce needles. Additionally, their contents changed in relation to damage. Some compounds, especially catechin, showed increased levels in the needles of the damaged trees compared to the undamaged ones. Here, the values for the undamaged trees of the different sites were similar. Concerning the changes in picein contents, however, there was a great difference between the sites. p-Hydroxyacetophenone was detected in very low amounts only and did not correlate with damage. These results are compared with earlier findings from another site that shows severe dam­ age. The role of phenolic compounds as indicators of tree damage is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 619—627 (1994); received January 31/June 16 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Phenolic Compounds, Picea abies, Novel Forest Decline, Picein, Catechin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0619.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0619 
 Volume    49 
6Author    C. Hristine, M. R. Ichter, U. Lrich Eis, A. Loysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds as a Tool of Bioindication for Novel Forest Decline at Numerous Spruce Tree Sites in Germany  
 Abstract    Within a project that applied biochemical criteria to the diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce, 43 sites in western and eastern Germany showing only moderate tree damage were screened for the amounts of methanol soluble phenolic compounds in spruce needles. The concentrations of most of the main compounds -especially catechin -positively correlated with needle loss and the altitude of the site. It was also found that it is necessary to differenti­ ate between trees younger and older than 60 years of age. The correlations between the increase of the phenolic compounds studied and the needle loss or the damage class are stronger in the younger trees, possibly implicating differences in metabolic state or distur­ bances in protectective mechanisms in the older trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 53—58 (1996); received September 20/0ctober 6 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Phenolic Compounds, Catechin, Novel Forest Decline, Correlations, Picea abies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0053.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0053 
 Volume    51 
7Author    Bernhard Dietz, Iris Moors, Ute Flammersfeld, Wolfgang Rühle, Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigation on the Photosynthetic Membranes of Spruce Needles in Relation to the Occurrence of Novel Forest Decline I. The Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    The investigations described here were carried out in the context of our research project on the physiological, biochemical, and cytomorphological characterization of spruce trees growing in natural habitats and showing damage of varying intensity. Here we report on specific aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus. The aim of the measurements was to analyze whether or not the activity of the photosynthetic electron transport pathway is affected in damaged trees. The investi-gations were carried out on a 20 to 25-year-old spruce plantation in the Hunsrück mountains and on an 80-year-old spruce plantation in the Westerwald mountains. The photosynthetic electron transport rate was determined by photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. A decrease of the electron transport rate was shown in the damaged spruce trees in comparison to the apparent-ly healthy trees. The investigation of the water splitting enzyme system — determined in the Hill-reaction by feeding in electrons by means of diphenylcarbazide -indicates that the electron transport on the oxidizing side of photosystem II is impaired. The results imply that the photo-synthetic electron transport chains in the thylakoid membranes of the spruce chloroplasts are sites of early injurious effects. This is in agreement with the electron microscopic analyses which show consistently that early damage occurs especially at the cellular membranes. This membrane damage is apparent even in the green needles of damaged spruce trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 581—588 (1988); received March 23 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Air Pollution, Chlorophyll Content, Novel Forest Decline, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Picea abies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0581.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0581 
 Volume    43 
8Author    Aloysius Wild, Ute Flammersfeld, Iris Moors, Bernhard Dietz, Wolfgang RühleRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigation on the Photosynthetic Membranes of Spruce Needles in Relation to the Occurrence of Novel Forest Decline II. The Content of Q B -Protein, Cytochrome/, and P-700  
 Abstract    In order to obtain an insight into the damage of thylakoid membranes of spruce (Picea abies) trees with damage of varying intensity, investigations were performed on the content of QB-protein, cytochrome/, and P-700 in chloroplasts of spruce needles from apparently healthy and from damaged trees. Needles from the second and third needle year and the seventh whorl were chosen. The investigations were carried out in 1986 on a 20 to 25-year-old spruce plantation in the Hunsriick mountains and on an 80-year-old spruce plantation in the Westerwald mountains. In damaged trees an unequivocal decrease in the content of QB-protein, cytochrome/, and P-700 was found, even in needle groups that appear visibly green and healthy. The amount of cytochrome / decreased by 25% per dry weight (approximately to the same extent as chlorophyll); the content of QB-protein and P-700, however, were more drastically reduced compared to the control trees (about 40% and 50%, respectively). These results of measuring the photosynthetic electron transport components imply that the thylakoid membranes are sites of early injurious effects. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 589—595 (1988); received March 23 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Air Pollution, Cytochrome/, Novel Forest Decline, Picea abies, Thylakoid Membrane Damage 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0589.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0589 
 Volume    43 
9Author    Abteilung Zellchemie, G.S FRequires cookie*
 Title    Activities and Regulation of Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Spruce ( Picea abies) M einrad Boll  
 Abstract    Activities o f the glycolytic enzymes were determined in seedlings, callus cultures and cell sus­ pension cultures o f spruce (Picea abies) (L.) (Karst). The rate-limiting enzymes o f the pathway were the hexokinases, ATP: phosphofructo-kinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and pyruvate kinase. Two phosphofructokinases were found: A T P : fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFK) and pyrophosphate :fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP). In the presence o f its activator fructose-2,6-bisphos-phate, PFP had a 4 -5-fold higher specific activity than PFK. PFP could be activated about 20-fold by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate at saturating concentrations o f the substrates (fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate). The increase o f Fmax was accompanied by a strong increase in the apparent affinity o f the enzyme for the substrates. Km for fructose-6-phosphate and pyrophosphate was 0.44 mM and 24 fiM, respectively. Ka for fructose-2,6-bisphosphate was 24 nM. In seedlings, specific activity o f the glycolytic enzymes was 3 0 -3 0 0 percent higher in the hypocotyls, except for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate de­ hydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase, their activity being 1 0 0 -150 percent higher in the cotyledons, This distribution remained unchanged during periods o f 2 -16 weeks o f cultiva­ tion o f the seedlings. In callus cultures and in cell suspension cultures, grown mixotrophically with different car­ bohydrates, all enzymes were between 1-and 7-fold higher than in autotrophically grown seed­ lings. Incubation o f seedlings in mineral salt mixture containing a carbohydrate resulted in a rapid coordinate increase o f the activities to the levels o f callus-or cell suspension cultures. This induction required a carbohydrate and oxygen. During prolonged cultivation o f cell sus­ pension cultures, when carbohydrate became limiting, activity o f the enzymes slowly declined. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 597 (1991); received Dezember 7 1990/April 4 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Picea abies, Cell Culture, Carbohydrate M etabolism, PP, -phosphofructokinase, Enzyme Regulation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0597.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0597 
 Volume    46 
10Author    Z. NaturforschRequires cookie*
 Title    Composition of the Epicuticular Wax Esters of Picea abies (L.) Karst  
 Abstract    The long-chain alkyl esters homologues of the cuticular needle wax of Picea abies consist of a series of isomers, which are formed by different n-fatty acids and n-alkanols of various chain lengths. Even-numbered esters are dominating. Methyl esters range from C2i to C37, even-numbered esters are only minor components. Furthermore, a new class of homologue wax esters was isolated. Examination by gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy and chemi­ cal studies resulted in identification of pentenyl esters of triacontanoic, dotriacontanoic, tetra-triacontanoic and hexatriacontanoic acid. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 11—14 (1995); received September 12 1994 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Picea abies, Cuticular Wax, Isomeric Alkyl Esters, Methyl Esters, Pentenyl Esters 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0011.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0011 
 Volume    50 
11Author    Aloysius Wild, Peter Sabel, Lucia Wild-Peters, Ursula SchmiedenRequires cookie*
 Title    Photosynthesis and Transpiration in Damaged and Undamaged Spruce Trees  
 Abstract    The investigations presented here focus on the C 0 2/H 20 gas exchange in damaged and undamaged spruce trees while using open-air measurements as well as measurements under defined conditions in the laboratory. The studies were performed at two different sites in the Hunsrück and the Westerwald mountains. In the laboratory the C 0 2/H 20 gas exchange was measured on detached branches under controlled conditions in the course of two years. C 0 2 saturation curves were also generated. In addition C 0 2 compensation points were deter­ mined employing a closed system. In the natural habitat diurnal course measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration as well as light-saturation curves for photosynthesis were performed. In parallel with the photosynthesis and transpiration measurements, measure­ ments of the water potential were taken at both locations. The photosynthetic capacity and transpiration rate show a typical annual course with pro­ nounced maxima in spring and late summer and minima in summer and winter. The needles of the damaged trees exhibit higher transpiration rates and a distinct reduction in photosyn­ thesis than the needles of the undamaged trees during two seasons. The diurnal course mea­ surements of net photosynthesis and transpiration show a maximum in photosynthesis and transpiration in the afternoon in May and September, but a characteristic midday depression in July. Photosynthesis was markedly lower and transpiration higher in the needles of the damaged trees. The damaged trees show a lower increase in the light and C 0 2 saturation curves and higher C 0 2 compensation points as compared to the undamaged trees. The water potential reaches much lower values during the course of the day in needles of the dam­ aged trees. The reduction of the photosynthetic rate on one hand and the increase in transpiration on the other hand result in an extrem e lowering of the water use efficiency in photosynthesis. The damage to the thylakoid membranes and to the guard cells obviously results in a pro­ found disturbance of the physiological hom eostasis o f the needles and could thus lead to premature needle loss. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 200 (1996); received Decem ber 27 1995/January 29 1996 D edicated to 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    birthday C 0 2/H 20 Gas Exchange C 0 2 Compensation Point, Photosynthesis, Picea abies, Transpiration, Water Potential, Forest D isease 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0200.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0200 
 Volume    51