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1Author    W. Alter OettmeierRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship of Diphenylamines as Inhibitors of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photophosphorylation  
 Abstract    A number of 16 substituted diphenylamines have been tested for their inhibitory activity on photosynthetic NADP reduction and photophosphorylation. The most active compounds exhibited p l50 values of 6.0 in photosynthetic electron transport and 6.8 in cyclic photophosphorylation, respectively. The inhibition site in electron flow of the diphenylamines is located between the two photosystems. Necessary for high activity is the substitution of the phenyl moieties by several strongly electron withdrawing substituents. A quantitative structure activity relationship according to a parabolic Hansch approach could be accomplished by using the Hammett electronic parameter as the only variable. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1024—1027 (1979); received May 31 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Diphenylamines, Inhibitors, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-1024.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-1024 
 Volume    34 
2Author    Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Inhibitory Effects of the Insecticides Allethrin, Lindane, and Jacutin-Fogetten Sublimate on Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    The inhibitory effects of the insecticides Allethrin, Lindane, and Jacutin-Fogetten sublimate on photosynthetic electron transport of broken chloroplasts were tested. SO ^m oll-1 Allethrin caused an inhibition of 80% of the benzoquinone and ferricyanide Hill-reactions. 3 9 1 wmoll_1 Lindane inhibited the basal, coupled and uncoupled electron transport to ferricyanide up to 35%. The precipitate formed by the sublimation of Jauctin-Fogetten containing Lindane depressed elec­ tron transport much more than pure Lindane. 50 ug m l-1 of the sublimate led to an 80% inhibition of ferricyanide Hill-reaction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1070—1071 (1979); received May 23 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Allethrin, Jacutin-Fogetten, Lindane, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-1070.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-1070 
 Volume    34 
3Author    J. Firl, D. Frommeyer, E. F. ElstnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation and Identification of an Oxygen Reducing Factor (ORF) from Isolated Spinach Choloroplast Lamellae  
 Abstract    From the water extracts of heat-treated spinach chloroplast lamellae, five compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by paper chromatography, UV-, IR-, 'H-NMR-and 13C-NMR spectrometry: besides the major component, sucrose, 1 g lyophilized material contained 197 mg oxalic acid, 4.6 mg uridine and uracil and 22 (ig lumiflavin. Only the isolated lumiflavin stimulated photosynthetic oxygen reduction and H20 2 production by illu­ minated chloroplast lamellae. Evidence is presented that the stimulation o f photosynthetic oxygen activation by water extracts o f heat-treated chloroplast lamellae is most likely due to flavin derivative(s) (probably FAD) released from thylakoid-bound ferredoxin-NADP reductase by heat-and other treatments. Lumiflavin is artifactually derived from the solubilized flavin coenzymes during the isolation procedure. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 284—2 (1981); received November 281980 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Oxygen Activation, Spinach Chloroplast Lamellae, Flavins, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0284.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0284 
 Volume    36 
4Author    Achim TrebstRequires cookie*
 Title    Artificial Energy Conservation in Bacterial Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    In photosynthesis of chloroplasts and bacterial chromatophores an induced artificial electron flow bypass may restore the inhibition of electron flow and of coupled A T P formation by two possible mechanisms. An artificial transmembrane electron flow bypass will lead to artificial energy conservation, when the redox reaction cycle of the added mediator across the membrane acts as proton pump. In an artificial internal electron floiv bypass an inhibited native energy conservation may be reactivated; here an electron flow bypass induced by the mediator in the inside space restores the native proton translocation. The inhibition and the restoration of electron flow by antimycin, dibromothymoquinone and valinomycin 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 152 [1976]; received November 24 1975) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Bacterial Photosynthesis, Adenosine Triphosphate Formation, Inhibitors, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0152.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0152 
 Volume    31 
5Author    Hagan BayleyRequires cookie*
 Title    Inhibitors of Photosynthetic E lectron Transport. The Properties of D iazidodialkylbenzoquinones  
 Abstract    The potential photoaffinity reagents 2,5-diazido-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-l,4-benzoquinone (DAZMIB) and 2,5-diazido-3,6-dimethyl-l,4-benzoquinone (DAZDMQ), which are analogs of the well-known inhibitor 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DBMIB), block photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts. On irradiation, at relatively high concentrations, DAZMlB inhibits electron flow irrevers­ ibly. However, when [3H] DAZDMQ was photolyzed with chloroplasts, no labeling of the membrane proteins was ob­ served. Rearrangements of the nitrenes derived from the oxidized or reduced azidoquinones that might account for this behaviour are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 490 (1979); received February 6 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Azidoquinones, Photoaffinity Labels 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0490_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0490_n 
 Volume    34 
6Author    Magdolna Droppa, Sándor Dem, G. Ábor, H. OrváthRequires cookie*
 Title    Two Sites of Inhibition of the Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain by the Herbicide Trifluralin  
 Abstract    The effect o f trifluralin on the photosynthetic electron transport has been investigated by oxygen evolution and thermoluminescence m easurem ents. The results confirm the earlier observations that trifluralin at low concentrations blocks electron transport between the two photosystems probably at the same site as DBMIB does. A t higher concentrations however, trifluralin inhibits the reaction from H aO -*■ /?BQ also and affects the thermoluminescence of chloroplasts in a manner sim ilar to DCM U. These results suggest that trifluralin has a second inhibitory site therefore the use o f trifluralin as a specific inhibitor o f electron transport has to be questioned. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 853—855 (1981); received June 25 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Herbicide, Inhibition, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Trifluralin, Thermoluminescence 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0853.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0853 
 Volume    36 
7Author    Rekha Chaturvedi, M. Singh, P. V. SaneRequires cookie*
 Title    Photoinactivation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport under Anaerobic and Aerobic Conditions in Isolated Thylakoids of Spinach  
 Abstract    The effect o f exposure to strong white light on photosynthetic electron transport reactions o f PS I and PS II were investigated in spinach thylakoids in the absence or presence o f oxygen. Irrespective o f the conditions used for photoinactivation, the damage to PS II was always much more than to PS I. Photoinactivation was severe under anaerobic conditions compared to that in air for the same duration. This shows that the presence o f oxygen is required for prevention o f photoinactivation o f thylakoids. The susceptibility o f water-splitting com plex in photoinactivation is indicated by our data from experiments with chloride-deficient chloro-plast membranes wherein it was observed that the whole chain electron transport from DPC to MV was much less photoinhibited than that from water. The data from the photoinactivation experiments with the Tris-treated thylakoids indicate another photodam age site at or near reaction centre o f PS II. D CM U -protected PS II and oxygen-evolving com plex from p h oto­ inactivation. D C M U protection can also be interpreted in terms o f the stability o f the PS II complex when it is in S2 state. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 63—6 (1992); received August 16 1991 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Photoinactivation, Anaerobiosis, Inhibitors, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Trypsinization 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0063.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0063 
 Volume    47 
8Author    E. F. Elstner, D. From, M. EyerRequires cookie*
 Title    Analysis of Different Mechanisms of Photosynthetic Oxygen Reduction  
 Abstract    Three mechanisms of oxygen reduction by chloroplast lamellae in the presence of autoxidizable electron acceptors can be differentiated by product analyis in the presence or absence of either dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) : 1) H20 2 is the product of two-electron oxygen reduction by 2,3-dimethyl-5,6-methylenedioxy-p-benzoquinone, involving only photosystem II. This reaction is not inhibited by either DBMIB or SOD. 2) Superoxide anion, and H20 2 as the product of its dismutation, are products of monovalent oxygen reduction following autoxidation of certain low potential electron acceptors (herbicides) of photosystem I. These reactions are not inhibited by SOD but are blocked by DBMIB. 3) H20 2 is the product of and "apparent" two-electron photoreduction of oxygen, mediated by certain o-diphenols (caffeic acid). These reactions are inhibited by both DBMIB and SOD in­ dicating the involvement of photosystem I and of 0 2-as an intermediate in the H20 2 producing reaction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 276 (1978); received February 6 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Oxygen Reduction, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Superoxide Anion, Peroxide Formation, Chloroplasts 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0276.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0276 
 Volume    33 
9Author    Wolfgang Haehnel, Adelheid Heupel, Dorothea HengstermannRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigations on a Galvanic Cell Driven by Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    A light-driven galvanic cell was constructed making use of the photosynthetic activity of isolated chloroplasts. Artificial mediators managed the transfer of electrons from the endogenous electron carriers to the platinum electrodes in each of the joined half-cells. In one the mediators were reduc­ ed by electrons originating from water. In the other the mediators were oxidized by photosystem I in the presence of an autoxidizable electron acceptor. The redox potential in the single half-cells has been studied as a function of the lipophilicity of the mediators and their concentration. Further­ more different autoxidizable acceptors and different treatments of the chloroplasts were investigated. The combined half-cells were separated by an ultrafiltration membrane. Upon illumination the system gave rise to an open circuit potential of up to 220 mV. This battery was charged with rates as high as photosynthetic electron transport rates. The results are discussed with respect to the arrangement of the cell and the properties of the components for high effectiveness and maximal potential differences. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 392 (1978); received March 23 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Artificial Mediators, Galvanic Cell, Solar Energy Conversion 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0392.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0392 
 Volume    33 
10Author    G. P. Brugnoni, P. Moser, A. TrebstRequires cookie*
 Title    Site of Action and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship of a Series of Herbicidal N-Aryl-Substituted 3,4-Dimethyl-2-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-pyrrolones  
 Abstract    Substituted phenyl-hydroxy pyrrolone derivatives are potential herbicides and are found to be effective inhibitors of photosynthetic electron flow in chloroplasts. Their site of inhibition is localized at the acceptor side of photosystem II similar to DCMU. They have no effect on photophosphoryla­ tion. The correlation of photosynthetic acitivity to chemical structure is studied by comparing 36 derivatives. A clear dependence of inhibitory activity on lipophilicity is found. The dependence of herbicidal activity on chemical structure is more complex. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1028 (1979) 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Action, Structure-Activity Relations, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Herbi­ cidal Action 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-1028.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-1028 
 Volume    34 
11Author    Tadao Asamia, Masatoshi Babab, Hiroyuki Koikec, Yorinao Inouea, Shigeo YoshidaaRequires cookie*
 Title    Halogenation Enhances the Photosystem II Inhibitory Activity of 4-Hydroxypyridines: Structure-Activity Relationships and Their Mode of Action  
 Abstract    A range o f 4-hydroxypyridines were synthesized and their activity as PET inhibitors were investigated with regard to their structural resemblance to plastoquinone in photosynthetic electron transport (PET). The activity o f these com pounds was markedly enhanced upon m od­ ifying their structures: introduction o f halogens into both the 3-and 5-positions o f the pyridine ring and additional substitution at the a-position o f the side chain at 6-position were effective am ong others in enhancing the activity. Insertion o f a phenyl ring into the side chain at 6-position o f the pyridine ring also increased the activity. Substituents on the phenyl ring greatly affected the activity: when substituted with an appropriate functional group, the com ­ pounds became 10-to 100-fold more active. The m ode o f action o f both halogenated and non-halogenated 4-hydroxypyridines were investigated by means o f thermoluminescence measure­ ments and cross resistance examination against atrazine-resistant thylakoids having mutation in D 1 protein. It was inferred that upon halogenation, 4-hydroxypyridines changed their m ode o f action from plastoquinone-pool inhibitors to phenol-type inhibitors. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 152 (1993); received October 30 1992 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    4-Pyridone, 4-Hydroxypyridine, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Inhibition, Halogenation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0152.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0152 
 Volume    48 
12Author    Jaber Rahoutei3, MatildeB. Arón3, IsabelG. Arcía-Luqueb, Magdolna Droppac, András Neményic, G. Ábor, H. OrváthcRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Tobamovirus Infection on Thermoluminescence Characteristics of Chloroplasts from Infected Plants  
 Abstract    Changes of thermoluminescence characteristics as well as the 0 2-evolving capacity was analysed in chloroplasts isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana infected with pepper and pa­ prika mild mottle viruses and their chimeric hybrids. The electron transport activity in thyla­ koids of virus-infected plants was inhibited and could be restored by adding DPC or Ca2+ which indicated that the virus infection altered the oxygen-evolving complex. In thermolumi­ nescence characteristics of plants infected with either viruses, the first well defined response was a shift in the peak position of the B band from 20 °C to 35 °C corresponding to S3(S2)Q b-and S2Q b~ charge recombinations, respectively, which showed an inhibition in the formation of higher S states in the water splitting system. Simultaneously, a new band ap­ peared around 70 °C due to chemiluminescence of lipid peroxidation. Further progress of the viral infection dramatically decreased the intensity of bands originated from charge re­ combinations with a concomitant increase of the band at 70 °C indicating the general oxida­ tive breakdown of injured thylakoids. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 634 (1999); received November 15 1998/January 15 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Biotic Stress, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Photosystem II, Thermoluminescence, Virus Infection 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-0634.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-0634 
 Volume    54 
13Author    Aloysius Wild, Petra Strobel, Ute FlammersfeldRequires cookie*
 Title    Studies of Components of the Thylakoid Membrane of Undamaged and Damaged Spruce Trees at Different Mountain Sites  
 Abstract    During a five-year period, com ponents o f the thylakoid membrane in needles o f the second generation o f undamaged and damaged trees o f Norway spruce were studied at three different mountain sites in W est Germany. Visible signs o f damage at these sites are a yellowing o f the light-exposed sides o f the needles as well as the loss o f needles. The goal o f this study was to determine damage-induced alterations in com position and physiological reactions o f the thy­ lakoid membranes in spruce needles. In order to meet this purpose, contents o f chlorophyll a and b, electron transport rate o f photosystem II, contents o f the D 1 protein, cytoch rom e/, as well as P-700 were measured. The chlorophyll content in the needles o f the damaged spruce trees was significantly lower than in the needles o f the undamaged trees. In addition to this, the typical annual course o f chlorophyll content was exclusively observed in the needles o f the undamaged spruce trees. If related to dry weight, a drastic reduction o f the electron transport rate and o f the redox com ­ ponents o f the thylakoid membrane was observed due to damage, indicating a degeneration o f the photosynthetic membranes. The contents o f D 1 protein and the photosynthetic electron transport rates were also markedly reduced in the needles o f the damaged trees, when related to chlorophyll content o f thylakoids, suggesting an early and particular impairment o f photo­ system II. The comparison o f spruce trees showing different signs o f damage demonstrates that certain biochemical parameters concerning the photosynthetic membranes (chlorophyll, cytochrom e/ , ratio photosystem II/I) reflect the extent o f damage and are suitable for an early indication o f a beginning, but still invisible damage o f spruce trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 911 (1993); received June 5/August 27 1993 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Cytochrome /, D 1 Protein, Forest Decline, P-700, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0911.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0911 
 Volume    48 
14Author    Herbert Böhme, Peter BögerRequires cookie*
 Title    Dual-Wavelength Spectroscopy in Photosynthesis  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 161 (1978); received March 13 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Plastidic Cytochromes, Dual-Wavelength Spectroscopy, Cross-Over Experiments; Oxidation-Reduction Potentiometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0161.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0161 
 Volume    33 
15Author    G.Erhard Sandm, R. Olf, Lam Bert, Peter BögerRequires cookie*
 Title    Multifunctional Mode of Action of Substituted Nitrodiphenylethers in Scenedesmus Cells  
 Abstract    Nitrodiphenylethers substituted with Cl, CF3, and other comparatively simple substituents are compared with respect to their primary effects on the photosynthetic apparatus. These are direct electron-transport inhibition, energy-transfer inhibition (of ATP synthesis), and pigment bleach­ ing, the latter accompanied by decrease o f electron transport activity. Certain substituents and their positions at the diphenylether skeleton can be correlated with a particular influence on these phytotoxic effects. The unicellular alga, Scenedesmus, is an appropriate species to fumisch quantitative data on these primary herbicidal modes of action within a 24-h assay period. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 633 (1981); received March 311981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Nitrodiphenylethers, Energy-Transfer Inhibition of ATP Synthesis, Herbicides, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Pigment Bleaching 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0633.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0633 
 Volume    36 
16Author    JackD. Ekker, Barbara WestfallRequires cookie*
 Title    A Temporal Phase Mutation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Triazine-Resistant Brassica napus  
 Abstract    The objectives o f this study were to determ ine if there were variations in triazine-resistant and -susceptible Brassica napus leaf disc chlorophyll fluorescence (LCF) intensity in terms of: age of leaf on the plant and time o f day. In growth room and field experim ents triazine-susceptible B. napus cv. "T ow er", and triazine-resistant B. napus cv. "O A C Triton" were used. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity m easurem ents were made 30 min after disc removal. In both environm ents, two periods o f reduced photosynthetic efficiency occurred in the diurnal. The tim es that these periods occurred during the diurnal differed between biotypes. A phase shift in LCF maxima betw een resistant and susceptible biotypes resulted in two periods, early and late in the light period o f the diurnal, o f increased LCF in resistant tissue. This differential pattern in LCF is support for the hypothesis that triazine resistance chloroplast alterations could imply an alteration in the temporal organization o f chloroplast physiological function. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 775 (1987); received Novem ber 11 1986 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    C hronobiology, Chronoresistance, Chronomutant, Circadian Clock, R apeseed, Photosynthetic Electron Transport 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-0775.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-0775 
 Volume    42 
17Author    Bernhard Dietz, Iris Moors, Ute Flammersfeld, Wolfgang Rühle, Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigation on the Photosynthetic Membranes of Spruce Needles in Relation to the Occurrence of Novel Forest Decline I. The Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    The investigations described here were carried out in the context of our research project on the physiological, biochemical, and cytomorphological characterization of spruce trees growing in natural habitats and showing damage of varying intensity. Here we report on specific aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus. The aim of the measurements was to analyze whether or not the activity of the photosynthetic electron transport pathway is affected in damaged trees. The investi-gations were carried out on a 20 to 25-year-old spruce plantation in the Hunsrück mountains and on an 80-year-old spruce plantation in the Westerwald mountains. The photosynthetic electron transport rate was determined by photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. A decrease of the electron transport rate was shown in the damaged spruce trees in comparison to the apparent-ly healthy trees. The investigation of the water splitting enzyme system — determined in the Hill-reaction by feeding in electrons by means of diphenylcarbazide -indicates that the electron transport on the oxidizing side of photosystem II is impaired. The results imply that the photo-synthetic electron transport chains in the thylakoid membranes of the spruce chloroplasts are sites of early injurious effects. This is in agreement with the electron microscopic analyses which show consistently that early damage occurs especially at the cellular membranes. This membrane damage is apparent even in the green needles of damaged spruce trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 581—588 (1988); received March 23 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Air Pollution, Chlorophyll Content, Novel Forest Decline, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Picea abies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0581.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0581 
 Volume    43