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1996 (1)
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1Author    ChristineM. Richter, Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds in Needles of Norway Spruce Trees in Relation to Novel Forest Decline. II. Studies on Trees from Two Sites in Middle Western Germany  
 Abstract    The content of several phenolic compounds in needles of 20-to 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) was measured using HPLC. The results of two forestry sites in middle western Germany are reported in this paper. They are part of a research programme on novel forest decline which was carried out in various regions of Germany. Distinct amounts of picein, catechin, piceatannol glucoside, and other phenolic compounds were detected in the studied spruce needles. Additionally, their contents changed in relation to damage. Some compounds, especially catechin, showed increased levels in the needles of the damaged trees compared to the undamaged ones. Here, the values for the undamaged trees of the different sites were similar. Concerning the changes in picein contents, however, there was a great difference between the sites. p-Hydroxyacetophenone was detected in very low amounts only and did not correlate with damage. These results are compared with earlier findings from another site that shows severe dam­ age. The role of phenolic compounds as indicators of tree damage is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 619—627 (1994); received January 31/June 16 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Phenolic Compounds, Picea abies, Novel Forest Decline, Picein, Catechin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0619.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0619 
 Volume    49 
2Author    C. Hristine, M. R. Ichter, U. Lrich Eis, A. Loysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds as a Tool of Bioindication for Novel Forest Decline at Numerous Spruce Tree Sites in Germany  
 Abstract    Within a project that applied biochemical criteria to the diagnosis of damage to Norway spruce, 43 sites in western and eastern Germany showing only moderate tree damage were screened for the amounts of methanol soluble phenolic compounds in spruce needles. The concentrations of most of the main compounds -especially catechin -positively correlated with needle loss and the altitude of the site. It was also found that it is necessary to differenti­ ate between trees younger and older than 60 years of age. The correlations between the increase of the phenolic compounds studied and the needle loss or the damage class are stronger in the younger trees, possibly implicating differences in metabolic state or distur­ bances in protectective mechanisms in the older trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 53—58 (1996); received September 20/0ctober 6 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Phenolic Compounds, Catechin, Novel Forest Decline, Correlations, Picea abies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0053.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0053 
 Volume    51 
3Author    Bernhard Dietz, Iris Moors, Ute Flammersfeld, Wolfgang Rühle, Aloysius WildRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigation on the Photosynthetic Membranes of Spruce Needles in Relation to the Occurrence of Novel Forest Decline I. The Photosynthetic Electron Transport  
 Abstract    The investigations described here were carried out in the context of our research project on the physiological, biochemical, and cytomorphological characterization of spruce trees growing in natural habitats and showing damage of varying intensity. Here we report on specific aspects of the photosynthetic apparatus. The aim of the measurements was to analyze whether or not the activity of the photosynthetic electron transport pathway is affected in damaged trees. The investi-gations were carried out on a 20 to 25-year-old spruce plantation in the Hunsrück mountains and on an 80-year-old spruce plantation in the Westerwald mountains. The photosynthetic electron transport rate was determined by photoreduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. A decrease of the electron transport rate was shown in the damaged spruce trees in comparison to the apparent-ly healthy trees. The investigation of the water splitting enzyme system — determined in the Hill-reaction by feeding in electrons by means of diphenylcarbazide -indicates that the electron transport on the oxidizing side of photosystem II is impaired. The results imply that the photo-synthetic electron transport chains in the thylakoid membranes of the spruce chloroplasts are sites of early injurious effects. This is in agreement with the electron microscopic analyses which show consistently that early damage occurs especially at the cellular membranes. This membrane damage is apparent even in the green needles of damaged spruce trees. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 581—588 (1988); received March 23 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Air Pollution, Chlorophyll Content, Novel Forest Decline, Photosynthetic Electron Transport, Picea abies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0581.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0581 
 Volume    43 
4Author    Aloysius Wild, Ute Flammersfeld, Iris Moors, Bernhard Dietz, Wolfgang RühleRequires cookie*
 Title    Investigation on the Photosynthetic Membranes of Spruce Needles in Relation to the Occurrence of Novel Forest Decline II. The Content of Q B -Protein, Cytochrome/, and P-700  
 Abstract    In order to obtain an insight into the damage of thylakoid membranes of spruce (Picea abies) trees with damage of varying intensity, investigations were performed on the content of QB-protein, cytochrome/, and P-700 in chloroplasts of spruce needles from apparently healthy and from damaged trees. Needles from the second and third needle year and the seventh whorl were chosen. The investigations were carried out in 1986 on a 20 to 25-year-old spruce plantation in the Hunsriick mountains and on an 80-year-old spruce plantation in the Westerwald mountains. In damaged trees an unequivocal decrease in the content of QB-protein, cytochrome/, and P-700 was found, even in needle groups that appear visibly green and healthy. The amount of cytochrome / decreased by 25% per dry weight (approximately to the same extent as chlorophyll); the content of QB-protein and P-700, however, were more drastically reduced compared to the control trees (about 40% and 50%, respectively). These results of measuring the photosynthetic electron transport components imply that the thylakoid membranes are sites of early injurious effects. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 589—595 (1988); received March 23 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Air Pollution, Cytochrome/, Novel Forest Decline, Picea abies, Thylakoid Membrane Damage 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0589.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0589 
 Volume    43