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1994 (1)
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1982 (1)
1Author    M. F. Macchiato, A. TramontanoRequires cookie*
 Title    Thermodynamic Approach to a Possible Theory of the Evolution of a Genetic Code  
 Abstract    One of the distinctive features of a biological system is its remoteness from equilibrium: for the treatment of the information exchanged by these systems with the external world the concept of information amount is not sufficient because for nonequilibrium systems we need further specifications about information, i. e. its value. We defined the information value for a genetic code. The comparison of the results we had applying such a definition to the three genetic codes found in nature shows that our definition described the system of transmission and reception of information in a biological organism very well and that the information value of a genetic code can be considered as an index of its efficiency, i.e. of its ability to minimize the effects of a mutation of the genotype on the phenotype. Otherwise, our results show that the information value, and hence the efficiency of the three known codes is the same and suggest that the prerequisite of the evolution of the codes is the preservation of this value. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 1031—1037 (1982); received January 26 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Codes, Information Value, Mutations, Efficiency, Evolution 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-1031.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-1031 
 Volume    37 
2Author    Bernd Weisshaar, Rainer Gilles, Regina Moka, Lothar JaenickeRequires cookie*
 Title    A High Frequency Mutation Starts Sexual Reproduction in Volvox carteri  
 Abstract    Pheromone-initiated sexual reproduction of Volvox carteri f. nagariensis is started by a "spontaneous" generation of sexual male spheroids at a rate of 10~4. As previously suggested, these males are mutants (5e.vc) which become independent of pheromone-controlled sex-induction. Unequivocal evidence for a mutative event now comes from the observation that the sex0 trait is transmitted through cell lineages during embryogenesis, thus confirming earlier 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1159—1162 (1984); received July 6 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Cell Lineages, Mutation, Sexual Induction, Volvox carteri 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-1159.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-1159 
 Volume    39 
3Author    Sonja Hillebrandt, Christian StrefferRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Computerized Analysis of Silver-Stained and Coomassie Blue-Stained Two-Dimensional Protein Maps  
 Abstract    Using the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and two systems for computer analysis of the resulting maps, we obtained a good quantitative reproducibility of individual spots of silver-stained and Coomassie Blue-stained gels from mouse fetus liver samples. The GelScan-XL system was established for the evaluation of silver-stained gels. The Gel-Image software has shown to be capable of the analysis of Coomassie Blue-stained gels and autoradiographs. For these systems the linear relationship between defined concentrations of protein loaded on the gel and the resulting integrated intensities of spots were examined. The results show that both systems are efficient to detect quantitative changes in protein expression correlated with malformations in mouse fetuses. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 849—855 (1994); received July 13/ 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis, Protein Mapping, Computerized Analysis of Proteins, Mutations, Embryological Malformations 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0849.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0849 
 Volume    49