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1Author    Hubertus Von Nicolai, Heinz Egge, Fritz ZillikenRequires cookie*
 Title    Gaschromatographisch-massenspektrometrische Analyse neutraler und saurer Oligosaccharide der Frauenmilch als Trimethylsilyläther * Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Neutral and Acid Oligo­ saccharides from Human Milk as Their Trimethylsilyl Derivatives  
 Abstract    Gas chromatography and the 20 eV mass spectra of the human milk oligosaccharides fucosido-galactose, fucosido-lactose, di-fucosido-lactose, 3'-N-acetylneuraminyl-lactose, 6'-N-acetylneuraminyl-lactose and of N-acetyllactosamine as pertrimethylsilyl (TMS) ethers are described. The gas chromatographic separation of the L-fucose containing oligosaccharides was performed on Silicone SE 30. The sialic acid containing sugars were separated on DEXSIL 300. The correlations between oligosaccharide structures and mass spectrometric fragmentation pat­ terns are discussed. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 451—459 [1975]; eingegangen am 17. Januar/14. April 1975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Human Milk Oligosaccharides, Silylation, Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0451.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0451 
 Volume    30 
2Author    K.G R Pachler, P. L. Wessels, V. Christ, K. H. MaurerRequires cookie*
 Title      
 Abstract    The significance of pheromones in olfactory communication in mammals, and the possibility of using synthetic pheromones to influence the behaviour of problem animals, are briefly discussed. The isolation, identification and synthesis of the principal volatile component contained in the pedal gland exudate of the bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, viz. (Z)-5-undecen-2-one, are re­ ported. Some of the other major constituents of the secretion have been identified as 2-heptanone, 2 -nonanone, 2 -undecanone and 2,5-undecanedione. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 21—28 [1976]; received July 26 1975) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Olfactory Communication, Pheromones, Mass Spectrometry, Ketones 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0021.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0021 
 Volume    31 
3Author    Boris JanistynRequires cookie*
 Title    Gaschromatographic, Mass-and Infrared-Spectrometric Identification of Cyclic Adenosine-3': 5'-monophosphate (c-AMP) in Maize Seedlings (Zea mays)  
 Abstract    Gaschromatographic, mass-and infrared-spectrometric evidence is presented for the iden­ tification of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate (c-AMP) in maize seedlings (Zea mays). The genuine c-AMP content could be quantitated by GC-detection and refere to authentic c-AMP standards. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 193—196 (1981); received November 111980 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Maize, c-AMP, Gaschromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Infrared Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0193.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0193 
 Volume    36 
4Author    GeorgH. Schmid, KlausP. Bader, Richard Gerster, Christian Triantaphylides, Marcel AndréRequires cookie*
 Title    Dependence of Photorespiration and Photosynthetic Unit Sizes on Two Interdependent Nuclear Gene Factors in Tobacco  
 Abstract    A new set of tobacco mutants was obtained by selfing a single variegated plant which emerged in a seed lot of Nicotiana tabacum var. Consolation. The seeds obtained from this mutant give rise to four phenotypes: variegated, yellow, yellow-green, and green seedlings. The green, yellow-green and yellow characters are due to two interdependent nuclear gene factors. The yellow-green phenotype is the homozygous (aabb) true breeding condition, whereas the green and the yellow phenotype are heterozygous (AaBb) with respect to both nuclear factors, the difference in the yellow and green phenotype being the addition of a labile gene factor pair, Cc, in the yellow condition. If photorespiration is measured as the Warburg effect or as 180 2-consumption by mass spectrometry it appears that the heterozygous green phenotype is the defective condition with high photorespiration. The three phenotypes differ with respect to chlorophyll content and photosynthetic unit sizes, the photosynthetic unit size in the yellow phenotype being approxi­ mately 1/10 of that of the green type. The gene expression for photorespiration (measured as 180 2-uptake for example) in the heterozygous green type is suppressed by the addition of the labile gene factor pair Cc in heterozygous condition which leads to the yellow phenotype. In the yellow and green phenotype the photosynthetic unit size is different but not the ratio of photosys­ tem I/photosystem II activity. Moreover, from the present studies it appears that the Warburg effect i. e. an increase of photo­ synthetic rate upon anoxia, can only partly be due to an inhibition of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate oxygenase or glycolate oxidase. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 662—671 (1981); received March 23 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Photorespiration, Mass Spectrometry, Photosynthetic Units, Tobacco Mutants 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0662.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0662 
 Volume    36 
5Author    Y. Shiraiwa, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Oxygen Gas Exchange in High-and LOW-C0 2 Cells of Chlorella vulgaris  
 Abstract    Oxygen gas exchange was monitored in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris 211 — 11 h by means of a mass spectrometer equipped with a special membrane gas-inlet-system and a photosynthetic reaction vessel. C02-dependent I8 02-uptake as well as ,6 02-evolution were ana-lyzed in both High-and Low-C02 cells. In High-C02 cells, the 18 Oruptake in the light (UL) decreased by 65% upon addition of 3 mM NaHC03, while l6 02-evolution (E) was increased approx. 1.8 times by the same treatment. 18 02-uptake in the dark (UD) was not affected by the addition of external inorganic carbon (Ci). The addition of 3.3 mM NaHCO, also affected UL and E in Low C02-cells, however, to a minor extent. UL under C02-saturating conditions was light intensity-independent up to 2 klux and 1.2 klux in High-and Low-C02 cells, respectively. Above these light intensities UL increased approx. 4-fold in High-and approx. 6-fold in Low-C02 cells. Under C02-limiting conditions, however, UL increased in High-CO: cells even under very low light intensities, showing that photorespiratory oxygen uptake occurred even in the near vicinity of the light compensation point. Under C02-saturating and strong light conditions UL represented almost half of E in Low-C02 cells and about 30% of E in High-C02 cells. In Low-C02 cells addition of ethoxyzolamide (EZA), an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, enhanced UL and suppressed E and NET under C02-limiting conditions, whereas the compound had only a minor effect on High-C02 cells. DCMU (3 |XM) strongly inhibited E and UL under C02-saturating conditions, with the remain-ing UL being smaller than UD. KCN (1 mM) and SHAM (1.5 mM) added to DCMU-treated Low-C02 cells suppressed UL by approx. 50%. The resulting value corresponded to half of UD. KCN also inhibited E under CÓ2-saturating conditions, with UL being strongly enhanced showing a maximal uptake at 0.4 mM KCN. Under these conditions NET was nearly zero. The effect seems to be due to an inhibition of RubisCO and an enhancement of Mehler reactions. At 0.7 mM KCN, DCMU entirely inhibited UL, but oxygen uptake appeared increased after turning the light off. This uptake corresponded to approx. 60% of UD. Whereas KCN and SHAM inhibited approx. 70% of UD, only 16% of UL was suppressed. These results suggest that the contribution of mitochondrial respiration to UL was négligeable, since UL seemed to be suppressed in the light under C02-saturated conditions. Iodoacetamide, which is an inhibitor of the Calvin cycle and thereby diverts carbon into the respiratory pathway, inhibited E and NET under C02-saturating conditions, but did not affect UL. This result also shows that UL is not due to mitochondrial respiration. A hydroxylamine derivative [20, 21] which changes the ratio of the RuBP carboxyla-tion to oxygenation activity in tobacco leaves did not affect this ratio in Chlorella. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 709—716 (1988); received May 24 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Chlorella, Oxygen Gas Exchange, Carbonic Anhydrase, Mass Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0709.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0709 
 Volume    43 
6Author    KlausP. Bader, Anja RöbenRequires cookie*
 Title    Mass Spectrometric Detection and Analysis of Nitrogen Fixation in Oscillatoria chalybea  
 Abstract    By means of mass spectroscopic m easurements in an artifical gas atmosphere containing the stable nitrogen isotope 15N2 we were able to demonstrate nitrogen fixation capacity in the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria chalybea. Our technique proved to be well-suited also for investigations on the light-induced nitrogen fixation in the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodobacter capsulatus. Oscillatoria chalybea grown without combined nitrogen showed a substantial 15N2-uptake which could clearly be correlated with nitrogen fixation. Nitrate grown cultures did not show this nitrogen uptake or only to a minimal extent. Addition of ammonium chloride resulted in a rapid deactivation of the nitro-genase system. Similar observations have been made with other so-called switch-off effectors like phenazine methosulfate. The structural integrity of the filaments appeared to be a pre­ requisite for nitrogen fixation also in this organism, as even mild mechanical homogenization strongly inhibited the N2-uptake signals. Illumination of the assays under conditions where the photooxidition of water is not operational (Bader, K. P. (1994), Biochim. Biophys. A cta 1188, 2 1 3 -2 1 9) did not affect the nitrogen fixation in Oscillatoria chalybea. Illumination of cultures with concom itant release of oxygen from the w ater splitting reaction resulted in strong inhibition of 15N2-uptake. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 199 (1995); received November 11 1994/January 30 1995 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Mass Spectrometry, Nitrogen Fixation, Photosynthesis, Cyanobacterium 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0199.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0199 
 Volume    50 
7Author    Refat Abdel-Basset, KlausP. BaderRequires cookie*
 Title    Characterization of Hydrogen Photoevolution in Oscillatoria chalybea Detected by Means of Mass Spectrometry  
 Abstract    The filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria chalybea is capable to photoevolve molecular hydrogen when the cells are flushed to anaerobiosis with nitrogen or argon and exposed to short light flashes or continuous light. The light-induced hydrogen gas exchange of Oscillatoria chalybea has been investigated by direct determ ination of dynamic changes in the hydrogen partial pressure at m/e=2 in the H/D collector of a mass spectromet-ric set-up. By means of this technique also the time curves of the light-induced hydrogen gas exchange could be directly recorded. Depending on the chlorophyll concentration in the measuring cell we observed an increasing hydrogen content of the aqueous Oscillatoria sus­ pension i.e. a dark evolution of molecular hydrogen. Upon the onset of light an initial rise of the H 2-signal was observed which was increasingly mixed or followed by a hydrogen uptake. The capability to photoevolve molecular hydrogen was maximal with young cultures and decreased with increasing age. The hydrogen evolution signals require relatively short dark adaptation to get pronounced; few seconds suffice for 2/3 of the hydrogen evolution amplitude. Prolonged dark adaptation maximizes the flash amplitudes. The hydrogen evolu­ tion signals do not deactivate by low flash frequency Oscillatoria chalybea evolves molecular hydrogen following growth on nitrogen free or nitrate containing medium. Increase of the oxygen partial pressure of the assays completely abolishes the hydrogen evolution signals with an I50-value of 6 ^im. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 775—781 (1997); received September 8/October 17 1997 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Photosynthesis, Mass Spectrometry, Hydrogen Photoevolution, Cyanobacterium 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0775.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0775 
 Volume    52 
8Author    H.-R Schulten, R. Ziskoven, W. D. LehmannRequires cookie*
 Title    Cesium Determination in Physiological Fluids and Tissues by Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry+  
 Abstract    Quantitative ultratrace analysis (10 nmol to 10 /cmol/1) of cesium in biological samples such as human body fluids and animal tissues is performed without any prior purification or concentration steps. The normal level of cesium ions in heart cells was determined. After poisoning these cells with high concentrations of the alkali cation much higher levels were found inside the cells then had been suggested previously. It is demonstrated that field desorption mass spectrometry is a unique tool for the qualitative and quantitative investigations of metal cations in biological material. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 178 (1978); received February 20/March 8 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Cesium, Ultratrace Determination, Biological Samples, Mass Spectrometry, Field Desorption 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0178.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0178 
 Volume    33 
9Author    R. Ziskoven, C. Achenbach, U. Bahr, H.-R SchultenRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Investigations on the Diaplacental Transfer of Thallium by Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry  
 Abstract    The placental transfer of thallium cations in pregnant mice was investigated by determining the thallium concentrations in fetal and maternal tissue 0.5 to 24 h after application of thallium. The maternal dose o f thallium was 8 mg/kg body weight throughout. Uterus and fetus were found not to differ from other organs like heart and liver in time course and magnitude of thallium uptake with an initial surge during the first few hours of exposure to thallium and a rapid decrease to steady 12 and 24 h values somewhat lower than those found in the kidney. Diaplacental transfer is therefore assumed comparatively rapid and a specific placental barrier for thallium does not seem to exist. For the determination of thallium concentrations Field Desorption Mass Spectrometry was utilized as a reliable, fast, and sensitive method for the analysis o f metal cations in biological material. This method does not require extensive pretreatment of the tissue and total sample amounts in the range of milligrams and less are sufficient for quantitative analysis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 902 (1980); received August 8 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Thallium, Placental Transfer, Ultratrace Determination, Mass Spectrometry, Field Desorption 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0902.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0902 
 Volume    35 
10Author    Ryuichi Ishii, GeorgH. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    The Kok Effect and Its Relationship to Photorespiration in Tobacco  
 Abstract    The Kok effect of photosynthesis was investigated in different tobacco mutants. It was found that the breaks in the light intensity curve were always at or around 1000 lux in all plants tested regardless o f the unit sizes which differed by a factor of 10. It was concluded that the photo­ receptor responsible for the effect must be present in the wild type and the chlorophyll deficient mutants in the same amount and is probably not chlorophyll. Due to the fact that the light dependency of the Hill reaction in isolated tobacco chloroplasts also shows a break at or around the "Kok intensity" it was concluded that probably a structural change of the photochemical apparatus around 1000 lux contributes to the effect. Measurement of 180 2-uptake by mass spectrometry at low light intensity shows at low C 0 2-concentration an enhancement of 180 2-uptake again at/around 1000 lux indicating that photorespiration starts to function at the "Kok intensity". Due to the fact that 180 2-uptake remains constant at high C 0 2-concentrations the break in the photosynthetic light intensity curve cannot be due to an inhibition o f "dark respiration" at low light intensities. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 450 (1981); received February 26 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Kok Effect, Tobacco Mutants, 180 2-Uptake, Mass Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0450.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0450 
 Volume    36 
11Author    P. He, K. P. Bader, A. Radunz, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Consequences of High C 0 2-Concentrations in Air on Growth and Gas-Exchange Rates in Tobacco Mutants  
 Abstract    Wild type tobacco N. tabacum var. John William's Broadleaf and the tobacco aurea mutant Su/su were permanently grown under 700 ppm C 0 2 in air. In comparison to plants grown under 350 ppm C 0 2 in air but under otherwise identical conditions growth was substantially enhanced. Gas exchange measurem ents carried out by mass spectrometry show that the rate of photosynthesis in the wild type and in the mutant is increased by more than 100%. The photorespiratory rate in the wild type measured as 180 2-uptake in the light in the "700 ppm C 0 2-plants" is not reduced to the extent expected or deduced from experiments in which the 350 ppm system responds under in vitro conditions to 700 ppm C 0 2. An analysis of the induction kinetics of room tem perature fluorescence kinetics of the adapted (700 ppm C 0 2) system and the control system (350 ppm C 0 2) under various C 0 2-partial pressures shows that perm anent growth under the elevated C 0 2-partial pressure leads to a structural modifi­ cation of the photosynthetic apparatus. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 781—788 (1995); received July 3/July 30 1995 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    High C 0 2-Pressure, Mass Spectrometry, Tobacco, Photosynthesis, Photorespiration 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0781.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0781 
 Volume    50 
12Author    B. V. Burger, Maritha Le Roux, C. F. Garbers, H.S C Spies, R. C. Bigalke, K.G R Pachler, P. L. Wessels, N.C R L, C.S I R, South Africa, V. Christ, K. H. MaurerRequires cookie*
 Title    Further Compounds from the Pedal Gland of the Bontebok ( Damaliscus dorcas dorcas)  
 Abstract    The identification of four further major constituents of the pedal gland exudate of the bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, viz. a-terpineol, 2-ra-heptylpyridine, m-cresol and (Z)-6-dodecen-4-olide and the investigation of the stereochemistry of the double bond in (Z) -6-dodecen-4-olide by means of iterative computer analysis are described. An improved synthesis of this compound is outlined. Studies on Mammalian Pheromones, II The identification of 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-undecanone, 2,5-undecanedione and (Z)-5-undecen-2-one as some of the major volatile constituents of 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 49 [1977]; received July 14 1976) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    L Birkofer on His 65th Birthday Olfactory Communication, Pheromones, Mass Spectrometry, NMR Spectra Simulation, y-Lactone Synthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0049.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0049 
 Volume    32 
13Author    W.I G Ruszeckia, K. Strzałk, K.P B Ad Erc, A. R. Adunzc, G. H. SchmRequires cookie*
 Title    Involvement of the Xanthophyll Cycle in Regulation of Cyclic Electron Flow around Photosystem II  
 Abstract    In our previous study (Gruszecki et al., 1995) we have postulated that the mechanism of cyclic electron transport around photosystem II, active under overexcitation of the photosyn­ thetic apparatus by light is under control of the xanthophyll cycle. The combination of dif­ ferent light quality and thylakoids having various levels o f xanthophyll cycle pigments were applied to support this hypothesis. In the present work photosynthetic oxygen evolution from isolated tobacco chloroplasts was measured by means o f mass spectrometry under conditions of high or low levels of violaxanthin, being transformed to zeaxanthin during dark incubation in an ascorbate containing buffer at pH 5.7. Analysis of oxygen evolution and o f light-induced oxygen uptake indicate that the de-epoxidation o f violaxanthin to zeaxanthin results in an increased cyclic electron transport around PS II, thus dimishing the vectorial electron flow from water. An effect similar to de-epoxidation was observed after incubation of thylakoid membranes with specific antibodies against violaxanthin. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 47 (1996); received September 22/O ctober 18 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Xanthophyll Cycle, Cyclic Electron Flow, Photosystem II, Oxygen Evolution, Blue Light Effect, Mass Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0047.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0047 
 Volume    51 
14Author    G. Erd GädeRequires cookie*
 Title    The Revolution in Insect Neuropeptides Illustrated by the Adipokinetic Hormone/Red Pigment-Concentrating Hormone Family of Peptides  
 Abstract    The last decade has seen a surge in the knowledge on primary structures of insect neuro­ peptides. Particularly successful were isolations and sequence determinations of more than 30 members of the adipokinetic horm one/red pigment-concentrating hormone (A K H /R P C H) family of peptides. This brief overview describes the techniques used to obtain data on purifi­ cation and structure such as high performance liquid chromatography, Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. M oreover, a short account on the precursors and on the multiple functions of the peptides of the A K H /R P C H family in various crustacean and insect species is given. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 607 (1996); received April 8 /July 2 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Insect Neuropeptides, R P -H P L C, Edm an Degradation, Mass Spectrometry, Bioassays 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0607.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0607 
 Volume    51