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1991 (2)
1Author    FerencD. UtkaRequires cookie*
 Title    Bioactive Chemical Bond Systems in Safeners and Prosafeners  
 Abstract    Acetals and ketals involving a dichloromethyl group on their central carbon atom were found to be active or highly active as safeners of corn against thiocarbamate and chloroacet-anilide herbicide injury. A mechanism for the biotransformation of these compounds as pro­ safeners to the actual dichloroacetic ester safeners is proposed. Similarly, S-and N-analogues of the cyclic acetals (ketals) which show safener activity can also be considered as prosafeners because they can be converted in the biophase by the same mechanism into actual safeners such as dichloroacetic thiolesters or dichloroacetamides sup­ porting the bioactivation hypothesis. Characteristic bioactive chemical bond systems in safeners and prosafeners are suggested. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 805 (1991); received March 26 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Safeners, Prosafeners, Acetals, Ketals, MG-191 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0805.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0805 
 Volume    46 
2Author    Istvan JablonkaiRequires cookie*
 Title    Basis for Differential Chemical Selectivity of MG-191 Safener against Acetochlor and EPTC Injury to Maize  
 Abstract    The influence of MG-191 safener on the uptake, translocation and metabolism of [l4C]acetochlor and [14C]EPTC was studied. The amounts o f absorbed radioactivity by maize seedlings at 3, 6, 24, and 72 h after applications of [l4C]labeled herbicides and [l4C]MG-191 were different. Plants treated with [l4C]acetochlor took up 30-to 50-fold more radiolabel with­ in 72 h than [14C]EPTC-or [14C]MG-191-treated plants. Addition of MG-191 caused only mi­ nor changes in the rate of herbicide absorption. EPTC and MG-191 and/or their metabolites moved quickly acropetally and partitioned equally between root and shoot tissues up to 72 h. The amount of acetochlor and/or its labeled metabolites translocated to shoot tissues was less than 10%. MG-191 practically had no influence on herbicide translocation rates. With all chemicals the amounts of water-soluble and unextractable fractions increased while the ratio of hexane-extractable metabolites decreased with time. TLC analyses of both water-and hex­ ane-soluble metabolites confirmed the fast metabolism o f acetochlor. The acetochlor metabo­ lism took place via GSH conjugation and more polar, non-conjugated metabolites compared to parent molecule were detected in hexane-soluble fraction. MG-191 enhanced acetochlor metabolism by decreasing the portion of non-metabolized acetochlor. EPTC metabolism re­ sulted in water-soluble metabolites having similar chromatographic properties to those of ace­ tochlor. However, there was no safener effect on non-metabolized EPTC content of plants. It appears that MG-191 protects maize against EPTC by enhancing the early rate of conjugation with GSH after initial oxidative metabolism. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 836—845 (1991); received March 26 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Chemical Selectivity, Safener, MG-191, Acetochlor, EPTC, Uptake, Translocation, Metabo­ lism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0836.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0836 
 Volume    46