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1Author    J. Freise, P. Magerstedt, F. W. SchmidtRequires cookie*
 Title    Die in vitro und in vivo Stabilität des Einschlusses von Methotrexat in negativ geladenen Liposomen nach Sterilfiltration The in vitro and in vivo Stability of the Entrapment of Methotrexate in Negatively Charged Liposomes after Sterile Filtration  
 Abstract    The preparation of sterile artificial liposomes (phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol: dicethylphos-phate = 5 : 5 : l) by Millipore® filtration is described. Conditions for storing liposome entrapped Methotrexate have been found which allow storage of the drug in the entrapped form over a period of at least 4 months. It is shown that intravenously injected liposome entrapped Metho­ trexate is retained for at least 15 hours in the particulate form. During this time no free Metho­ trexate is detectable in the blood. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 114 (1979); eingegangen am 16. August/10. November 1978 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Methotrexate, Liposomes, Endocytosis, Cell Membrane 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0114.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0114 
 Volume    34 
2Author    Srabani Banerjee, S. N. ChatterjeeRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Sodium Cholate on the Phase Transition Temperature of Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidylcholine  
 Abstract    On treatm ent with sodium cholate, the phase transition tem perature (Tc) of m ultilam ellar liposomes derived from dipalm itoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) progressively decreased with increasing cholate: lipid-P m olar ratio. A molar ratio of 4.5 caused a one degree depression in Tc. The unilamellar cholate vesicles o f DPPC exhibited the same Tc as that o f the m ultilam ellar ones. The formation of unilam ellar vesicles from the m ultilam ellar ones by cholate treatm ent was in­ vestigated by electron microscopy. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 302—306 (1983); received Septem ber 20/N ovem ber 15 1982 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Liposomes, DPPC, Sodium Cholate, Phase Transition, Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0302.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0302 
 Volume    38 
3Author    SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Flash Photolysis of Liposomes Containing Chlorophyll and Zeaxanthin, as a Function of Temperature (2 °—34 °C)  
 Abstract    The transfer o f triplet excitation from chlorophyll to zeaxanthin in lip osom es is a function o f temperature and pigment concentration. At 525 nm both chlorophyll and zeaxanthin triplet states are observed. The result is a biphasic increase in absorption. The rise time o f absorption by the chlorophyll triplet is much faster, than by the zeaxanthin triplet. With increasing temperature the contribution o f absorption by zea­ xanthin (relative to that o f chlorophyll) at 525 nm increases, and its rise tim e gets faster. At high ratios o f zeaxanthin to chlorophyll, temperature has less effect on both the rise tim e and absorption by the zeaxanthin triplet state. The chlorophyll triplet is measured at 780 nm. It decays faster with increasing temperature and or increasing ratio o f zeaxanthin to chlorophyll. The results are interpreted in terms of: increasing fluidity o f the lipid lip osom e with tem per­ ature, formation o f zeaxanthin-chlorophyll com plexes at high ratios o f zeaxanthin and chloro­ phyll, presence o f different lipid phases in the lip osom e bilayer. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1108—1111 (1984); received June 15 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, Liposomes, Triplet States, Excitation Energy Transfer 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-1108.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-1108 
 Volume    39 
4Author    J. Gabrielska, J. Sarapuk, S. PrzestalskiRequires cookie*
 Title    Antioxidant Protection of Egg Lecithin Liposomes during Sonication  
 Abstract    When model membranes are prepared by ultrasonic treatm ent of polyunsaturated phos­ pholipids, radical production can induce a partial degradation of the polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains and the formation of lipid hydroperoxides. A suitable antioxidant employed dur­ ing liposome preparation is able to protect them against lipid peroxidation. This work con­ tains the results of studies on egg lecithin liposomes with incorporated antioxidants that were supposed to play the protective role mentioned. As it has been shown the antioxidant com pounds used ensured a 40-60% , i.e., satisfactory protection of liposomes after 30 min sonication. Possible practical applications are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 561—564 (1995); received March 10/May 11 1995 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Lecithin, Sonication, Liposomes, Lipid Hydroperoxides, Antioxidants 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0561.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0561 
 Volume    50 
5Author    G. Ünter Schmidt, PeterG. RäberRequires cookie*
 Title    The Rate of ATP Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Reconstituted CF0F i-Liposomes  
 Abstract    The conditions for optimal rates of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the chloroplast ATP-synthase (A T P ase), CFoF,, after isolation and reconstitution into asolectin liposomes have been investi­ gated. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was m easured either after oxidation of CF0F, (by incubation with iodosobenzoate) or after reduction of CFoF, (by incubation with dithiothreitol). In both cases a rate of about 1 -2 A TP (CF0F i-s)" ' was observed under uncoupled conditions. If the pro-teoliposom es are first energized by an acid-base transition and a K"/valinomycin diffusion po ten ­ tial, the uncoupled rate of A TP hydrolysis is about 1 -2 A TP (CFnF, -s) '1 for the oxidized enzyme and about 20 for the reduced species. This rate is about a factor 2 smaller than that observed in chloroolasts under the same conditions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 231 (1987); received O ctober 17 1986 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    A TP Hydrolysis, ATP Synthase, A TPase, Reconstitution, CF0F, Liposomes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-0231.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-0231 
 Volume    42 
6Author    Janina Kuczera3, TeresaE. Krai3, Marian Podolakb, Stanislaw Przestalski3Requires cookie*
 Title    A Joint Effect of Cationic and Anionic Amphiphilic Compounds on the Desorption of Calcium Ions from Lecithin Liposome Membranes  
 Abstract    The aim of the work was to determine the synergism and antagonism of mixtures of the cationic amphiphilic compounds: N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-tetradecylammonium chloride (BD TA), N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium chloride (B D D A), N-methyl-N-te-tradecyl-morpholinium bromide (M TM), N,N,N-trimethyl-N-tetradecylammonium bromide (TM TA) and those of tripropyltin chloride in a mixture with amphiphilic anionic compounds (a homologous series of sodium alkylsulfonates with n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 alkyl carbon atoms) in the process of calcium ion desorption from liposome lecithin membranes. Radioac­ tive labels and spin labels were used in the investigations. All compounds studied caused an increase in the kinetic rate constant of calcium ion desorption from liposome membranes with increasing concentration. In case of mixtures containing cationic and anionic compounds both synergism and antagonism were observed. It was shown that the regulatory effect depended on the properties of both cationic and anionic compounds. A mixture of the most effective cationic compound (BD TA) with each of the anionic compounds decreased the effect. Mixtures of the remaining ammonium com­ pounds with sodium alkylsulfonates produced both synergism and antagonism. Anionic com­ pounds with short chains increased, and with longer chains decreased efficiency, while com­ pounds with comparable chains caused totally blocked desorption. A mixture of an organometallic compound having three short chains with anionic compounds gave a reversed effect: short-chain compounds caused a decreased and those with long-chains -increased efficiency of tripropyltin chloride. Studies with spin labels supported the conclusion that the most important factor responsi­ ble for the regulatory effect is the molecular shape of the complexes formed in a mixture of both groups of compounds -a factor that determines membrane packing density 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 429 (1999); received November 23 1998/February 12 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Ca2+ Desorption, Liposomes, Amphiphiles, Organometallic Compounds, Regulatory Effect 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-0429.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-0429 
 Volume    54 
7Author    RichardT C HuangRequires cookie*
 Title    Artificial Phospholipid and G lycolipid Particles, Visualization of Their Structures by Fluores­ cence Markers and Some B iological Properties Expressed by These Particles  
 Abstract    Homogeneous large (5 — 30 fj.m) lipid particles com­ parable in size and shape to blood cells can be obtained when excess of cholesterol is homogenized with egg phos­ pholipids or brain glycolipids in a Dounce apparatus. The particles contain distinct structures of m em branes and lipid cores as visualized by the included fluorescence markers. W hen these particles were used as models in studying interactions between membranes, it was dem onstrated that several properties norm ally pertaining to natural m em branes could be exhibited by lipids alone. It could also be shown that particles containing phospholipids or glycolipids were very different in their adhesiveness to tissue culture cells and in their response to sera of various species. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 656 [1977]; received A pril 5 1977) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    Liposomes, Phospholipid Particles, Glycolipid Particles, Adhesion to Cells, Agglutination by Serum 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0656_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0656_n 
 Volume    32 
8Author    AugustoF. Garcia, G.Erhart DrewsRequires cookie*
 Title    Properties of Membrane Fractions Prepared by Chromatophore-Liposome Fusion  
 Abstract    Intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) isolated from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata cells were fused with liposom es by a pH transition procedure. Vesicles o f lower density and higher lipid contents and larger diam eter than chrom atophores were obtained. Similar results were observed by Ca2+ induced fusion and by the freeze-thawing method. Respiratory and light-induced electron transport were m easured in chrom atophores and fused vesicles. Light-induced reaction center bleaching was observed in all types o f vesicles, whereas repiratory electron transport was substantially dim inished by lipid incorporation. U biquinone 10 restored to some extent respiratory electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation and it m odified the photophosphorylation kinetics under continuous light. Electrochrom ic carotenoid band-shift and the 9-aminoacridine fluorescence quenching indicate that the capacity o f the fused vesicles to maintain an electrochemical proton gradient has not been substantially dim inished. From the kinetics o f 9-aminoacridine quenching an increased K+-perm eability seem s to be apparent. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1112—1119 (1984); received July 23 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Photosynthetic Apparatus, Respiratory Chain, Rhodopseudom onas capsulata, M embrane Fusion, Liposomes, Photophosphorylation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-1112.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-1112 
 Volume    39 
9Author    Melánia Babincová3, Eva Machováb, Grigorij KoganbRequires cookie*
 Title    Carboxymethylated Glucan Inhibits Lipid Peroxidation in Liposomes  
 Abstract    Protective capabilities were studied of carboxymethylated (1—*3)-ß-D-glucan from Sacchar­ omyces cerevisiae cell wall against lipid peroxidation in phosphatidylcholine liposomes in­ duced by O H radicals produced with Fenton's reagent (H 20 2/Fe2+) and also by microwave radiation using absorption UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A significant decrease in the conju­ gated diene production, quantified as Klein oxidation index, was observed in the presence of a moderate amount of added glucan. Increase of the oxidation index was accompanied with enhanced carboxyfluorescein leakage as a result of liposome membrane destabilization. This process was markedly suppressed with glucan present in the liposome suspension. There­ fore, glucan may be considered as a potent protector against microwave radiation-induced cell damage. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 1084—1088 (1999); received July 5/July 27 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Liposomes, (l-^3)-ß-D-glucan, Microwave Radiation, Lipid Peroxidation, Membrane Destabilization 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-1084.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-1084 
 Volume    54