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1Author    Em Ília Breierová3, Ján Šajbidor6, Martin LamačkabRequires cookie*
 Title    The Influence of Newly Synthesised Fenpropimorph Derivatives on Some Pathogen Yeasts  
 Abstract    The effect of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of six novel fenpropimorph deri­ vatives on lipid and sterol composition of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Malas-sezia pachydermatis and Malassezia furfur was investigated. The MICs for the most effective derivatives were found in the range from 3.7 to 56.7 | x m and were 2 -3 times lower compared to the commercial fungicide bifonazol. The more efficient fenpropimorph derivatives were the piperidine derivative for C. albicans and the allylamine derivative for Cr. neoformans, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur . The inhibitor in the growth medium reduced the unsaturation index of the total lipid content in M. furfur and C. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 53—5 (2001); received July 28/September 12 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Fenpropimorph Derivatives, Ergosterol, Lipids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0053.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0053 
 Volume    56 
2Author    Alfons RadunzRequires cookie*
 Title    Binding of Antibodies onto the Thylakoid Membrane I. Maximal Antibody Binding and Adsorption of Antibodies to Lipids  
 Abstract    The binding of antibodies onto the lamellar system of A ntirrhinum m ajus was determined in dependence on the serum addition. The unspecific adsorption of serum proteins was taken into account or eliminated. The binding of antibodies as a function of the amount of serum added is seen from a saturation curve. From an antiserum obtained by hyperimmunization with stroma-freed chloroplasts, the chloroplasts bind maximally 1 gram antibodies per gram stroma-freed chloro­ plasts. From an antiserum to the proteins of the thylakoid membrane prepared in the same way an equal amount of antibodies is adsorbed. It is assumed that with this amount the surface of the lamellar system accessible to antibodies is completely covered by antibodies. For an antiserum to monogalactosyl diglyceride a maximal antibody binding of 0.16 g, for sulphoquinovosyl diglyceride 0.12 g and for phosphatidyl glycerol 0.13 g of antibodies per gram stroma-freed chloroplasts are obtained. The significance of these results with respect to the molecular surface structure of the thylakoid membrane is discussed. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 484—488 [1975]; received April 11975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Chloroplasts, Lipids, Proteins, Antibodies, Membrane Structure 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0484.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0484 
 Volume    30 
3Author    Wilhelm Menke, Alfons Radunz, GeorgH. Schmid, Friederike Koenig, Rolf-Dieter HirtzRequires cookie*
 Title    Intermolecular Interactions of Polypeptides and Lipids in the Thylakoid Membrane  
 Abstract    Intermolecular interactions between chloroplast lipids and a polypeptide fraction from thylakoids were investigated by far ultraviolet circular dichroism. The polypeptide fraction was isolated from dodecyl sulfate-containing buffers. It exhibits an average molecular weight of 24 000. The circular dichroism of this polypeptide fraction measured as mean residue ellipticity is greater in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate than in the absence of this detergent. This effect is reversible. Addition of sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride to the dodecyl sulfate-free solution of the polypeptide also causes an increase of the circular dichroism. This increase was only observed in the pH-range between 6.9 and 7.4. The effect of dodecyl sulfate or sulfolipid on the circular dichroism is inter­ preted to indicate an increase of a-helix content. Monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl di­ glyceride and phosphatidyl glycerol gave no reaction. The attempt to obtain a conformational analysis of the polypeptide in the different states did not yield an entirely satisfactory result. Anti­ sera to sulfolipid inhibit photosynthetic electron transport of stroma-freed chloroplasts in the region of light reaction I. This inhibition is restricted to the same pH-range as the non-covalent binding of sulfolipid to the polypeptides. It appears that in the cell membrane-bound metabolic processes are regulated by this pH-dependence of the sulfolipid-polypetide interactions. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 436 [1976]; received April 30 1976) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Interactions, Polypeptides, Lipids, Thylakoid Membrane, Photosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0436.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0436 
 Volume    31 
4Author    Edward Göbel, Ruth Riessner, Peter PohlRequires cookie*
 Title    Einfluß von DCMU auf die Bildung von Lipiden und Fettsäuren und auf die Ultrastruktur von Euglena gracilis Influence of DCMU on the Formation of Lipids and Fatty Acids, and on the Ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis  
 Abstract    Euglena g racilis Klebs (strain Z) was grown heterotrophically in the dark for 6 days. Sub­ sequently, the cells were grown photoautotrophically under white fluorescent light with varying amounts of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-l,ldimethyl urea (DCMU) (1 .7 X 1 0 -9 — 1 .0 X 1 0 -5 mol/1) added 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 687 [1976]; eingegangen am 9. März/20. September 1976) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Euglena gracilis, Fatty Acids, Lipids, Ultrastructure, Chloroplasts, Mitochondria 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0687.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0687 
 Volume    31 
5Author    Alfons RadunzRequires cookie*
 Title    Binding of Antibodies onto the Thylakoid Membrane II. Distribution of Lipids and Proteins at the Outer Surface of the Thylakoid Membrane  
 Abstract    The number of antibody molecules which stroma-freed chloroplasts can bind out of the mono-specific antisera to monogalactosyl diglyceride, tri-and digalactosyl diglyceride, sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride, phosphatidyl glycerol, sitosterol, plastoquinone, lutein and neoxanthin was determined. This number was compared to the number of antibody molecules which stroma-freed chloroplasts can maximally bind. The result is that the antibodies to the individual lipids cover at most 17 per cent of the accessible thylakoid membrane surface. From a serum which contains both antibodies to the proteins and lipids of the thylakoid mem­ brane, not more antibody molecules are bound than from a serum to the proteins. This means that antibodies to proteins are able to cover up the entire accessible surface of the thylakoids whereas a mixture of antibodies to the lipids, listed above, cover only one forth of the surface. Consequently, antibodies which are bound to proteins can cover up the lipid areas entirely and in turn antibodies which are bound to lipids cover up parts of the protein areas. From this it follows that the portion of the surface, which is made up by lipids must be considerably smaller than 24 per cent. Furthermore, it follows from these experiments that the lipid areas are small and that lipids probably only fill up the gaps between the protein molecules. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 597 [1977]; received May 6 1977) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    Chloroplasts, Lipids, Proteins, Antibodies, Membrane Structure 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0597.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0597 
 Volume    32 
6Author    K.-P HeiseRequires cookie*
 Title    Variation in Chloroplast Lipid Content and its Correlation to Photosynthetic Activities  
 Abstract    During illum ination infiltrated spinach leaf sections show after a short log a linearly increasing 14C-incorporation into m em brane lipids from H 14C 0 3—. Isolated intact chloroplasts show this increase only for the neutral lipid fraction (N L). Glyco-and phospholipid accum ulation declines in the light. In chloroplast suspensions the increase in content and also in its 14C-incorporation rate of the NL fraction is accom panied 1. by a proportional decrease of CO*-fixation capacity, 2. by a decrease of the P /2 e-quotient. From 14C-incorporation kinetics, this increase of neutral lipids in plastid suspensions even after short illum ination periods appears to be a consequence of an inhibited glycolipid — and phospho­ lipid synthesis from diglycerides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 685 (1978); received June 27 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    14C -Incorporation, Lipids, Chloroplasts, Photosynthetic Activities 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0685.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0685 
 Volume    33 
7Author    Alfons RadunzRequires cookie*
 Title    Binding of Antibodies onto the Thylakoid Membrane. V. Distribution of Proteins and Lipids in the Thylakoid Membrane  
 Abstract    Binding of antibodies to proteins and lipids onto fragments of the thylakoid membrane was stu­ died and compared with the binding o f antibodies by stroma-freed chloroplasts. The mem brane fragments were prepared from strom a-free chloroplasts by ultrasonication and fractional cen­ trifugation. The fragments have an average diam eter of 200 A. T heir thickness corresponds to that of the thylakoid membrane. The m em brane fragments adsorb out o f an antiserum to lipids appro­ ximately the same am ount o f antibodies as out of an antiserum to proteins. In comparison to this, stroma-free chloroplasts bind 4 times more antibodies to proteins than to lipids. From this it fol­ lows that the major part o f the lipids is located in the m em brane surface which is directed towards the inside or is located inside the mem brane. As the chemical analysis has shown these results are not caused by an altered chemical composition of the m em brane fragments. Despite the fact that m em brane proteins bind considerably less protein antibodies than stroma-free chloroplasts, the antibody binding in m em brane fragment might be considerably increased for certain proteins such as a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight 24000 and cytochro­ me f. Antibodies to the m ajor components o f the lipid mixture, such as to monogalactosyl diglyce-ride, trigalactosyl diglyceride, sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride and phosphatidyl glycerol are 3 to 4 times more bound by m em brane fragments than by stroma-free chloroplasts. From these results it is concluded that the thylakoid m em brane surface directed towards the inside is preponderently composed of lipids whereas the surface directed towards the outside consists only by 10 to 15% of lipids. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1199—1204 (1979); received July 6 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Chloroplasts, Thylakoid M em brane Surface, Proteins, Lipids, Antibodies 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-1199.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-1199 
 Volume    34 
8Author    Gertrude Swoboda, Wilhelm HasselbachRequires cookie*
 Title    Bile Salt Delipidation, Residual Phospholipids and Reactivation o f the Ca2+-ATPase from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum  
 Abstract    1. Delipidation o f the Ca2+-ATPase o f sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes by gel chro­ matography employing ionic detergents (cholate, deoxycholate and mixtures o f both) in the presence of glycerol has been studied with respect to residual phospholipids and ATPase activi­ ties. 2. The extent o f delipidation depends on the detergent chosen and on the ionic strength o f the elution buffer. Increasing ionic strength favours a more effective removal o f phospholipids, down to about 1 phospholipid molecule per ATPase molecule. 3. The residual ATPase activities o f the delipidated preparations are negligibly low. Extensive restoration of the Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity has been achieved by oleic acid, a lysolecithin (myristoylglycerophosphocholine) and a lecithin (dimyristoylglycerophosphocholine). The per­ centage of reactivation by oleate depends linearly on the amount o f residual phospholipids and on the detergent employed. 4. After gel filtration through an Ultrogel or Sepharose column containing 1% cholate in the elution buffer the delipidated ATPase is eluted as a reactivatable high molecular aggregate, whereas 1% deoxycholate favours the formation o f completely lipid-free monomeric units which cannot be reactivated, however. A high molecular aggregate is also formed in deoxycholate, the ratio of monomer to polymer depending on the solubilizing and elution conditions. 5. The residual lipids are always composed o f a mixture o f all different lipid classes present in the native sarcoplasmic vesicles, even at high degrees o f delipidation. Specific changes with vary­ ing extent of delipidation were not detected. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 289—298 (1982); received December 7 1981 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, Bile Salts, Delipidation, Reactivation, Lipids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0289.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0289 
 Volume    37 
9Author    M. Suwalsky, N. Bugueñ, J. Tapia, F. NeiraRequires cookie*
 Title    X-Ray Studies on Phospholipid Bilayers. V. Interactions with DDT  
 Abstract    The possible interaction of DDT with the lipids dimyristoyl lecithin (DML), dipalmitoylphos-phatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and tripalmitin (TP) was studied. The work was carried out on oriented films and crystalline powders of DDT-lipid mixtures at different molar ratios by X-ray diffraction techniques. The diagrams showed only the patterns of pure DDT and that of the corresponding lipid. It is concluded that new phases were not formed and, therefore, no interac­ tions occurred. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 566—570 (1985); received March 29 1985 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    X-Ray Diffraction, Lipid, Bilayer, DDT, Pesticide 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0566.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0566 
 Volume    40 
10Author    R. L. Am Bert, G. Sandmann, P. BögerRequires cookie*
 Title    Binding and Peroxidative Action of Oxyfluorfen in Sensitive and Tolerant Algal Species  
 Abstract    Peroxidative activity of oxyfluorfen and binding o f this nitrodiphenyl ether to cell fractions was investigated with the susceptible alga Scenedesmus acutus and the resistant alga B um illeriopsis filiform is. A lthough a 10-fold higher concentration o f oxyfluorfen was applied to Bum illeriopsis, the lag phase for initiation o f peroxidative evolution of short-chain hydrocarbons from fatty acids was much longer than found with Scenedesmus. Oxyfluorfen was predominantly recovered after hom ogenization from the pellet which was separated into a lipid and a chloroform /m ethanol insoluble fraction. Parts o f the oxyfluorfen which is present in the insoluble pellet fraction during the lag phase before the onset o f peroxidation can be found in the lipid fraction when measurable peroxidative activities have started. This was observed with Scenedesm us as well as with B um il­ leriopsis. During peroxidation initiated by oxyfluorfen acyl lipids are degradated as m onitored by the disappearance o f the plastidic sulfolipid. Analysis o f bound fatty acids showed that they are targets for peroxidative reactions in acyl lipids. Destruction o f polyunsaturated fatty acids was higher than for saturated ones. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 819 (1987); received D ecem ber 14 1986 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    O xyfluorfen Binding, Peroxidation, Lipids, Susceptible/Resistant Species 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-0819.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-0819 
 Volume    42 
11Author    Stefan Schulz2, George Beccalonib, Ritsuo Nishidac, Yves Roisind, R. I. Vane-Wrightb, JeremyN. Mcneil6Requires cookie*
 Title    2,5-DialkyItetrahydrofurans, Common Components of the Cuticular Lipids of Lepidoptera  
 Abstract    In more than 50 lepidopteran species 2,5-dialkyltetrahydrofurans were identified as com­ ponents of the cuticular lipids. The chain length of these compounds varies between C25 and C37 and both cis-and rram-compounds are present. In addition, previously unknown 2-alkyl-5-(l-hydroxyalkyl)tetrahydrofurans were found in some species. The identification procedure and synthesis of representative compounds are reported. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 107 (1998); received October 22/November 17 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Lipids, Tetrahydrofurans, Cyclic Ethers, Lepidoptera, Cuticula 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0107.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0107 
 Volume    53 
12Author    J. Bednarz, A. Radunz, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Lipid Composition of Photosystem I and II in the Tobacco Mutant Nicotiana tabacum NC 95  
 Abstract    The lipids of photosystem II particles, of chloroplasts and leaves are compared in the variegated tobacco mutant NC 95. The mutant differs from other N. tabacum mutants by the phenomenon that it has variegated leaves with green and with yellow-green leaf patches. Chloroplasts from the green leaf areas exhibit photosystem II and photosystem I reactions and have a normal lamellar system with grana and intergrana regions. Chloroplasts from the yellow-green leaf areas, how-ever, yield only photosystem I reactions and have only single stranded isolated thylakoids. Hence, this mutant offers the unique possibility to compare without the use of detergents within the same plant the lipid composition of photosystem II particles with that in intact chloroplasts, exhibiting either photosystem II and I reactions or those exhibiting exclusively photosystem I reactions. The lipids of photosystem II particles are composed of 37% glycolipids, 4% phospholipids, 5% carotenoids and 54% chlorophyll. Lipids of chloroplasts with grana stacking are composed of 75% glycolipids, 7% phospholipids, 2% carotenoids and 16% chlorophyll. Chloroplasts with single isolated thylakoids have a lipid composition consisting of 83% glycolipids, 14% phos-pholipids and only 0.5% carotenoids and 2% chlorophyll. The chloroplast lipid mixture is charac-terized in comparison to the respective leaf lipid mixture by a 16—17% higher glycolipid portion and by a 13-70% lower phospholipid content. The main difference in the lipid composition of photosystem I and II consists in the observation that chloroplasts active in only photosystem I contain more than double the amount of glycolipids and the 4-fold amount of phospholipids in comparison to photosystem II active preparations. The amount of monogalactolipid is even 3 times higher in chloroplasts active only in photosystem I when compared to those in photosystem II particles. In photosystem II particles phosphatidyl-ethanolamine is completely lacking and phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol occur only in traces. The fatty acids of the sulfolipid are by 45% more saturated in the photosystem II particles and the digalactolipids of the photosystem II particles are by 28% more saturated than in chloroplasts exhibiting photosystem I and II activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 423—430 (1988); received March 3 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Lipids, Fatty Acids, Chloroplasts, Lipid Asymmetry, Photosystem II Particles 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0423.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0423 
 Volume    43