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1Author    E. Rnst PriesnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Electroantennogram Responses to Female Sex Pheromones in Five Genera of Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera)  
 Abstract    Sex pheromones of European species of L ym an tria, E u proctis, S tilp n o tia , O rgyia, and Dasychira (Lymantriidae) have been cross-checked by recording male electroantennogram (EAG) responses to excised female pheromone glands. Within the same genus, there was invariably full reciprocity of the gland effects. Between different genera, however, in all species combinations investigated the males strongly preferred their own species. From this pattern it is concluded that the major pheromone constituents are different for the five genera. In accordance with these results, several species of L ym antria are either known or supposed to produce the same sexual attractant, cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane (disparlure), whereas for one species of O rgyia the sex pheromone was recently identified (Smith e t al., Science 188, 63 [1975]) as cis-6-heneicosen-ll-one. None of the additional lymantriid pheromones have yet been chemically defined. In EAG screening tests, some species of this family were specifically responsive to hydrocarbons related to cis-7,2-methylocta-decene, the olefinic precursor of disparlure. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 676—679 [1975]; received May 12 1975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Pheromones, Disparlure, Electroantennogram, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0676.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0676 
 Volume    30 
2Author    V. W. Ray, R. H. DavisRequires cookie*
 Title    Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Butterflies and Moths: Incorporation of Valine and Isoleucine into Linamarin and Lotaustralin by Zygaena and Heliconius Species (Lepidoptera)  
 Abstract    C -13 NMR data for linamarin and lotaustralin, obtained after feeding of either Zygaena Jilipendulae or Heliconius melpomone (Lepidoptera) with C-13 enriched valine and isoleucine respectively, indicate that intact units of amino acid with loss of the carboxyl group are incorporated during the biosynthesis o f these cyanogenic glycosides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 583 (1983); received December 15 1982/M arch 16 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Cyanogenic Glycosides, Linamarin, Lotaustralin, Biosynthesis, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0583.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0583 
 Volume    38 
3Author    K. Witthohn, C.M N Aum, AnnRequires cookie*
 Title    Die Verbreitung des /?-Cyan-L-alanin bei cyanogenen Lepidopteren The Distribution of /J-Cyano-L-alanine in Cyanogenic Lepidoptera  
 Abstract    The toxic amino acid /?-cyano-L-alanine is shown to be present in 21 species o f the Zygaenidae, which are known to produce and store the cyanoglucosides linam arin and lotaustralin. /?-Cyano-alanine is also reported for the first time from other cyanogenic Lepidoptera, i.e. the 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 837—840 (1984); received March 21 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Cyanogenesis, /?-Cyano-L-alanine, Cyanoglucosides, Defense Mechanism, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0837_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0837_n 
 Volume    39 
4Author    K. W. Itthohn, C. M. NaumannRequires cookie*
 Title    A ctive Cyanogenesis — in Zygaenids and Other Lepidoptera  
 Abstract    The liberation of hydrocyanic acid by intact not damaged living insects is described as "active cyanogenesis". This phenomenon — as in contrast to "passive cyanogenesis" observed in plants, where enzyme and substrate get in contact only after tissue damage — is reported from the Zygaenidae. Quantitative data demonstrate that the Zygaenidae can increase the amount of emitted HCN upon irritation. The significance of this phenomenon as a mean of defense is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 1319—1322 (1987); received May 20/September 11. 1987 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    Cyanogenesis, Cyanide Respiration Defense Mechanism Zygaenidae, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-1319.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-1319 
 Volume    42 
5Author    HansJürgen Bestmann, Joachim Erler, Otto VostrowskyRequires cookie*
 Title    Bestimmung der relativen Flüchtigkeit von Sexualpheromonen von Schmetterlingen mittels Closed Loop Stripping* Determination of Relative Volatility of Lepidoptera Sex Pheromones by Closed Loop Stripping  
 Abstract    By means o f closed loop Stripping the relative evaporation rates o f monounsaturated C U)-C|6-acetates and C l(l-C12-alcohols have been determined. The results o f stimulus released demonstrate the different volatilities of pheromone compounds which should be taken in ac­ count with certain biotests and physiological studies. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 698—702 (1990); received January 15/April 12 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Volatility, Sex Pheromones, Lepidoptera, Closed Loop Stripping 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0698.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0698 
 Volume    45 
6Author    Edelgard Janssen, IvarH. AsenfußRequires cookie*
 Title    Pheromone 93 [1]. Das Sexualpheromon von Limnaecia phragmitella (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)  
 Abstract    P herom ones, 93 [1], T he Sex P herom one o f the C osm opterigid M o th Limnaecia phragmitella (L epidoptera: C osm opterigidae) H ans Jürgen B estm ann, F riedrich K ern By means of gas chromatographic, mass spectroscopic methods and combined GC-electroantennogram techniques (£)-l 1-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-l 1-tetradecenyl acetate were identified as the two biological active components of the sex pheromone of the female cosmopterigid moth Limnaecia phragmitella. The mixture of 95% (£)-l 1-tetradecenyl acetate 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 515—518 (1993); eingegangen am 28. Januar 1993 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    Lepidoptera, Limnaecia phragmitella, Cosmopterigidae, Pheromone Components, Tetradecenyl Acetate 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0515.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0515 
 Volume    48 
7Author    Gerhard StarneckerRequires cookie*
 Title    Involvement of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in the Regulation of Pupal Color Adaptation of the Butterfly, Inachis io  
 Abstract    In the butterfly Inachis io, a pupal melanization reducing factor (PMRF) which is located throughout the entire central nervous system controls the intensity of pigmentation of pupal cuticle depending on the background color of the pupation site. PMRF does not only reduce melanization but, in addition, enhances lutein incorporation in a dose-dependent manner to form pupae with yellow color on bright backgrounds. The present paper reports on the effects on pupal pigmentation caused by cyclic nucleo­ tides and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors which prevent degradation of cyclic nucleo­ tides. The injection of cAMP did not alter pupal coloration whereas its membrane-permeable analog dibutyryl-cAMP mimicked dose-dependently PMRF activity. Thus, pupae of reduced melanization and, in addition, enhanced yellow coloration were formed. Tliis indicates that an increased intracellular cAMP level is capable of mediating PMRF effect. Also, the injec­ tion of the PDE inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBM X) caused dose-dependently pupae of reduced melanization and enhanced lutein incorporation. Theophylline (another PDE inhibitor) was only slightly effective (23% inhibition of mela­ nization) at the highest dose compared to IBMX. The injection of cGMP and its analog dibutyryl-cGMP exhibited no melanization reducing effect. Extracts of abdominal ganglia (AG) which contained PM RF activity caused significantly brighter pupae when injected in combination with IBM X. However, this stimulation by IB M X became no longer effective at higher AG doses. Therefore, the present results are suggestive of an involvement of cAMP as a second messenger in the action of PMRF on pupal color adaptation. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 255—258 (1997); received November 28/December 17 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Neurohormone, Cyclic Nucleotide, Color Adaptation, Polyphenism, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0255.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0255 
 Volume    52 
8Author    Stefan Schulz2, George Beccalonib, Ritsuo Nishidac, Yves Roisind, R. I. Vane-Wrightb, JeremyN. Mcneil6Requires cookie*
 Title    2,5-DialkyItetrahydrofurans, Common Components of the Cuticular Lipids of Lepidoptera  
 Abstract    In more than 50 lepidopteran species 2,5-dialkyltetrahydrofurans were identified as com­ ponents of the cuticular lipids. The chain length of these compounds varies between C25 and C37 and both cis-and rram-compounds are present. In addition, previously unknown 2-alkyl-5-(l-hydroxyalkyl)tetrahydrofurans were found in some species. The identification procedure and synthesis of representative compounds are reported. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 107 (1998); received October 22/November 17 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Lipids, Tetrahydrofurans, Cyclic Ethers, Lepidoptera, Cuticula 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0107.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0107 
 Volume    53 
9Author    Ernst Priesner, Hans-Jürgen Bestmann, Otto Vostrowsky, Peter RöselRequires cookie*
 Title    Sensory Efficacy of Alkyl-Branched Pheromone Analogues in Noctuid and Tortricid Lepidoptera  
 Abstract    The effect of introducing alkyl substituents (methyl to pentyl) to the chain segment n in long-chain alkenyl acetates, CH3(CH2)nCH = CH(CH2) O T -0-C0CH3 (I), was investigated in pheromone receptors of Noctuidae, Tortricidae, and Cochylidae species. The receptor types studied were maximally responsive to (Z)-7-or (Z)-9-dodecen-l-yl acetate, (Z)-l-, (Z)-9-, or (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, or (Z)-11-hexadecen-l-yl acetate, representing key compounds with re = l, n = 3, or n = 5 methylene groups. In terms of the relative stimulus amounts required to elicit equivalent EAG amplitudes, the efficacy of the alkyl-branched derivatives was between 1/1000 to 300 times that of the unbranched chain of the same length and double bond position. The effects of branching were specific to the type of receptor, the length and double bond position of the parent chain, and the kind and position of the alkyl substituent. The most pronounced increase observed occurred with receptors for « = 1 type pheromones, (Z)-9-dodecen-l-yl acetate and (Z) -11-tetradecen-l-yl acetate when an a-methyl group was introduced to elongated derivatives; whereas the greatest decreasing effects were obtained on receptors for the n = 5 type compound, (Z)-7-tetradecen-l-yl acetate. The results show basic differences in structure-response relationships between the Noctuidae vs Tortricidae receptors studied. Various possible effects of the substituent groups during sensory transduction are considered. The data should contribute to further elucidation of interaction mechanisms of unbranched alkenyl acetate pheromones (I) with insect olfactory receptors. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 979 [1977]; received August 15 1977) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    Pheromones, Alkenyl Acetates, Olfactory Receptors, Structure-Activity Relationships, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0979.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0979 
 Volume    32 
10Author    Zhu Pingchou, Kong Fanlei, Yu Shengdi, Yu Yongqing, Jin Shuping, Hu Xinhua, Xu JianweiRequires cookie*
 Title    Identification o f the Sex Pherom one o f Eggplant Borer L eucinodes orbonalis G uenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  
 Abstract    (£)11-Hexadecenyl acetate was identified from sex pheromone gland extract of female eggplant borer. The acetate synthesized in the laboratory showed high attrac-tant activity in the field. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 1347—1348 (1987); received May 11 1987 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    Sex Pheromone, Identification, Leucinodes orbonalis, Lepidoptera, 11-Hexadecenyl Acetate 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-1347_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-1347_n 
 Volume    42 
11Author    M. Tóth, G. Szőcs, J. MolnárRequires cookie*
 Title    Field Tests with Sex Attractants of Diachrysia chrysitis and D. tutti (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at Several Sites in Hungary  
 Abstract    Sex attractants for the sibling taxa Diachrysia chrysitis (L.) s.str. and D. tutti (Kost.) were field tested on 9 sites in Hungary. Catches with the two already described attractant blends, Z-5-10:Ac/ Z-7-10:Ac in ratios 10:1 and 2:100, were similar to earlier results obtained in areas more to the west, chrysitis s.str. type males responding to the 10:1 while tutti type males to the 2:100 ratio. Substantial chrysitis s.str. catches were also obtained by the intermediate 1:1 blend. On all 9 sites the two taxa were co-occurring. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 463—466 (1988); received February 2 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Sex Attractant, Field Trapping, Diachrysia chrysitis, Diachrysia tutti, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0463.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0463 
 Volume    43 
12Author    Birgit Klein3, Ann Herm, M. Schildknecht3, Hilkerb Onika, Siegfried BomboschcRequires cookie*
 Title    Eiablagehemmende Wirkstoffe aus dem Larvenkot von Spodoptera littovalis Oviposition Deterrent from Larval Frass of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)  
 Abstract    A synthetic mixture containing 1-indanone, 2-pentanone, 2-m ethyl-3-pentanone, 3-methyl-2 -pentanone, 2 -m ethylcyclopentanone, 1-h ydroxy-propanone, acetophenone, benzaldehyde, «-nonanal, «-decanal, nerolidol, eugenol, thymol, carvacrol and phythol deters oviposition o f the Egyptian cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis from larval frass o f S. littoralis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 895 (1990); received February 2/M ay 14 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Spodoptera littoralis, Lepidoptera, Oviposition Deterrence, Larval Frass, Egyptian Cotton Leaf W orm 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0895.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0895 
 Volume    45