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1992 (4)
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1Author    Paul-Gerhard Giilz, Claudia EichRequires cookie*
 Title    Epicuticular Waxes from Leaves and Stems of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider)  
 Abstract    Epicuticular waxes were extracted with chloroform from air dried Jojoba leaves and stems. These cuticular waxes consisted o f hom ologues o f «-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, wax esters, aldehydes, acetates, esters, free long chain fatty acids and alcohols. Both leaves and stems showed the same qualitative and quantitative com position with sim ilar distribution patterns. Very long chain and in most cases saturated com pounds are dom inating. The com position o f epicuticular waxes from Jojoba leaves and stem s is quite different from that o f Jojoba pericarp and seed coats and demonstrates an organ specific wax com position o f different aerial parts o f this plant. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 679 (1983); received June 7 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Jojoba, Leaves, Sterns, Epicuticular Waxes, Hydrocarbons 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0679.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0679 
 Volume    38 
2Author    Petra Sperling, Ute Hammer, Wolfgang Friedt, Ernst HeinzRequires cookie*
 Title    High Oleic Sunflower: Studies on Composition and Desaturation of Acyl Groups in Different Lipids and Organs  
 Abstract    A selection o f lipids from achenes, cotyledons after germination, roots and leaves o f normal and high oleic varieties o f sunflower were analyzed with regard to their fatty acid profiles. The lipids included triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine as ER-made components and mono-and digalactosyl diacylglycerol as plastid-localized glycolipids. A comparison o f fatty acid pat­ terns showed that the block in oleate desaturation o f the high oleic variety is confined to the ER o f fat accumulating embryos, but that upon germination the oleate desaturation in the cotyledonary ER is rapidly derepressed. These data are supported by enzymatic experiments. In m icrosomes from maturing fruits o f the high oleic variety oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine de-saturase could not be detected, whereas o leo y l-C o A : lyso-phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and com ponents o f the microsomal electron transport chains were not affected. A correlation in the expression o f desaturation blocks in seed and root fatty acids as observed in mutants o f other species was not observed which, therefore, cannot be generalized. Our data are discussed in terms o f the existence o f two ER-specific oleate desaturase activities. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 166 (1990); received November 20 1989 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Triacylglycerols, G alactolipids, Phosphatidylcholine, Cotyledons, Leaves, Roots 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0166.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0166 
 Volume    45 
3Author    R.B N Prasad, Paul-Gerhard GülzRequires cookie*
 Title    Epicuticular Waxes from Leaves of Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.)  
 Abstract    The epicuticular waxes from the leaves of maples (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) contained hydro­ carbons (6.9%), wax esters (5.5%), aldehydes (38.1%), primary alcohols (10.2%) and fatty acids (17.1%). In addition to these common wax lipids, benzyl acyl esters (2.1%) and triterpe­ noids were also present. ß-Sitosterol, ß-amyrin and 24-methylene-cycloartenol were found in the form of acetates (14.4%). ß-Amyrin was also present as free alcohol (4.9%) and esterified with long chain fatty acids (~ 0.7%). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 599—601 (1990); received February 13/April 6 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Acer pseudoplatanus L, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Composition 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0599.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0599 
 Volume    45 
4Author    P.-G Gülz, G. BoorRequires cookie*
 Title    Seasonal Variations in Epicuticular Wax Ultrastructures of Quercus robur Leaves  
 Abstract    Already the very young leaflets of oak (Quercus robur L.), newly emerging from their buds, are covered by a thin wax layer, but at this time it lacks any wax sculptures or crystalloids. Both in its amount and its composition this wax layer is quite different to that of mature leaves. After leaf unfolding a dynamic biosynthesis of wax lipids is started. Ten days after the leaf has emerged from its bud, wax crystalloids are seen for the first time, developing out of the wax layer in the form of platelets. These crystalloids increase in size and quantity within the next weeks and are present on both leaf surfaces. On the adaxial side a dense and uniform arrangement of fringed edged platelets is observed. Similar dense arrangements of platelets are found on the abaxial leaf side, but with an intensive concentration and orientation around the stomata. All platelets are composed of tetracosanol, the main wax component, accounting for more than 40% of wax. Variations in surface wax ultrastructures are observed in July. Well formed platelets and melted away crystalloids are found close together in distinct parts of the same leaf, both on the adaxial and on the abaxial sides of the leaf. These observations pertain to preparations made from July to November with a trend toward recrystallization in October. High temperature and essential oils may be the reasons for the melting away or solution of the platelets. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 807—814 (1992); received June 9 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Quercus robur, Fagaceae, Leaves, Wax Ultrastructure, Seasonal Variations 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0807.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0807 
 Volume    47 
5Author    KarinM. Valant-Vetschera, EckhardW. OllenweberRequires cookie*
 Title    the Genus Leucocyclus (Compositae)  
 Abstract    The monotypic genus Leucocyclus, consisting of only two subspecies, was investigated for its exudate flavonoids. Major flavonoid aglycones were polymethoxyderivatives of 6-hydroxyflavones and, to a lesser extent, of 6-hydroxy-flavonols. The two subspecies differed in their accumula­ tion trends, but populational variation reduced the signifi­ cance of taxonomic implications. Cultivated material corre­ sponded largely to the original material collected from na­ ture. The accumulation trends of Leucocyclus coincide with those of the closely related genus Achillea. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 44c, 323 (1989); received August 15. 1988 
  Published    1989 
  Keywords    Leucocyclus (Compositae-Anthemideae), Leaves, Ex­ udates, Flavonoid Aglycones, Polymethoxyderivatives 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/44/ZNC-1989-44c-0323_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1989-44c-0323_n 
 Volume    44 
6Author    P.-G Gülz, E. MüllerRequires cookie*
 Title    Seasonal Variation in the Composition of Epicuticular Waxes of Quevcus robur Leaves  
 Abstract    The epicuticular leaf waxes of Quercus robur were analyzed continuously over a two years vegetation period with preparation every week from April to November. The folded leaflets in buds have waxes quite different in yield and composition from those of mature leaves. They contain homologous series of hydrocarbons, wax esters, primary alco­ hols, fatty acids and triterpenoids from the beginning, but not aldehydes. After leaf unfolding a dynamic biosynthesis of alcohols, aldehydes and fatty acids is observed in May and June. Wax content is doubled per dry weight or in cm2 leaf surface area and 80-fold per one leaf in that time. During leaf development tetracosanol becomes the dominant epicuticular wax component comprising ca. 40% of the wax. In both years of the study a reactivation of wax ester biosynthesis is observed in October and November. Esters with chain length C36 and C38 increased particularly. From July to November the wax composition remained nearly constant within mean values and their stand­ ard deviations. Within the two years studied most values concerning wax composition are reproducible and are therefore genetically determined. In spring the growing processes are influenced by climatic factors. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 800—806 (1992); received June 9 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Quercus robur, Fagaceae, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Composition, Seasonal Variation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0800.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0800 
 Volume    47 
7Author    Kurt HängstRequires cookie*
 Title    and Chemistry and Morphology of Epicuticular Waxes from Various Organs of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider)  
 Abstract    The surface o f leaves and seed coats o f Jojoba is covered with sim ilar am ounts o f epicuticular waxes per surface area. The com position o f these waxes was analysed by chem ical methods, whereas their microscopic structures in situ were revealed by scanning electron m icroscopy. Differences in the chemical structure and com position o f the com plex m ixtures cause differences in the morphological appearance o f wax on the surface o f both organs. The predom inance o f saturated and long chain components in leaf wax results in a crystalline wax layer on this organ. In contrast, the seed coat carries a cover o f non-crystalline fluid consistency. The lower m elting point o f this wax mixture is caused by shorter chain and unsaturated com pounds predom inating on this organ. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 683—6 (1983); received June 7 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Jojoba, Epicuticular Waxes, Wax Morphology, Leaves, Stems, Pericarp, Seed Coats, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0683.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0683 
 Volume    38 
8Author    H. Erbert, HemM. Ers, Paul-G Erhard Gülz, Kurt HängstRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemistry and Morphology of Epicuticular Waxes from Leaves of Five Euphorbia Species  
 Abstract    The surface w axes o f five E uphorbia species (E uphorbiaceae) were studied by chemical m ethods and by scanning electron microscopy. The yields o f epicuticular waxes, expressed as percentages o f the dry w eights, differed from species to species. Q ualitatively the five species showed the same wax com position but differences appeared in the am ounts o f single wax com po­ nents and in their distribution patterns. The predom inance o f mainly saturated and long chained com ponents as w ell as the high amounts o f primary alcohols and triterpenols resulted in crystalline wax layers. The com parable chemical wax com position o f all five species resulted in a quite similar morphological appearance o f wax crystals. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 521 (1986); received D ecem ber 2 1985/February 17 1986 
  Published    1986 
  Keywords    E uphorbia, Leaves, Epicuticular W ax, Wax Chem istry, Wax M orphology, Scanning Electron M icroscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/41/ZNC-1986-41c-0521.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1986-41c-0521 
 Volume    41 
9Author    P.-GG. Ülz, E. M. Üller, T. H. Errm AnRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Composition and Surface Structures of Epicuticular Leaf Waxes from Castanea sativa and Aesculus hippocastanum  
 Abstract    Epicuticular leaf waxes of Castanea sativa and Aesculus hippocastanum contain the same lipids in form of homologous series o f hydrocarbons, wax esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and fatty acids in similar concentrations without any main component dominating. In Ae. hip­ pocastanum wax acetates are present, additionally. Both waxes are found to contain triter-penols and triterpenol esters in remarkable amounts. ß-Amyrin, a-amyrin and lupeol are pres­ ent in both plant waxes, in Ae. hippocastanum wax friedelanol and friedelanone, additionally. The epidermis o f both plants are covered with a thin continuous wax layer without crystal­ loids. But the adaxial leaf surface o f C. sativa shows granular wax sculptures and therefore a different micromorphological ultrastructure for both leaf sides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 661—666 (1992); received March 12/May 20 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Castanea sativa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Composition, Surface Structures, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0661.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0661 
 Volume    47 
10Author    P.-G Gülz, E. Müller, K. Schmitz, F.-J Marner, S. GüthRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Composition and Surface Structures of Epicuticular Leaf Waxes of Ginkgo biloba, Magnolia grandiflora and Liriodendron tulipifera  
 Abstract    Epicuticular leaf waxes of Ginkgo biloba, M agnolia grandiflora and Liriodendron tulipifera contain homologous series of hydrocarbons, wax esters, benzyl acyl esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols, and fatty acids. None of these lipid classes is found to contain any main component dominating. In addition to these usual wax lipids, in G. biloba leaf wax a secondary alcohol namely nonacosan-10-ol (15.0%), y-tocopherol (1.7%) and acetates (0.3%) is also present. The wax of L. tulipifera, however, contains hentriacontan-16-one (23%) and several triterpenols (10%), additionally. On G. biloba leaves a dense arrangement of tubular wax crystalloids are found on the lower as well as on the upper leaf surface. The openings of the tubules can be seen very well in the SEM figures at a magnification of 20000. The small tubules are a clear indication for the pres­ ence of nonacosan-10-ol as also reported previously for conyferyl waxes. Leaves of M . grandiflora have an abaxial epidermis with a continuous wax layer without any crystalloids or sculptures. The adaxial epidermis also shows a continuous wax layer but with little irregular granular sculptures. L. tulipifera leaves show an abaxial epidermis with a continuous wax layer superimposed by a dense arrangement of crystalloids in shape of angular rodlets which are composed of several piled up layers. The adaxial leaf surface is also superimposed with wax crystalloids, the rodlets of which, however, are not sculptured in such definite way. They usually appear melted up and also form granular sculptures. The wax crystalloids in shape of angular rodlets on the abaxial surface are formed by hentriacontan-16-one. The abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces show most different micromorphological wax ultrastructures, as shown for all trees studied. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 516—526 (1992); received February 4/May 20 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Ginkgo biloba, M agnolia grandiflora, Liriodendron tulipifera, Leaves, Epicuticular Wax Com­ position, Surface Ultrastructures, Scanning Electron Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0516.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0516 
 Volume    47