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1Author    G. Uhlenbruck, A. RadunzRequires cookie*
 Title    Use of Heterophilic Agglutinins in Plant Serology  
 Abstract    In previous communications it has been demonstrat-ed that monogalactosyl diglyceride and the anionic chloroplasts lipids can be detected on the thylakoid membrane by specific antisera 1_3 . The antigen deter-minants are of carbohydrate nature as was shown by specific agglutination inhibition tests. They are located on the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane and are directly accessible to the antibodies. The latter has been proven for the monogalactolipid 1 , whereas the de-terminants having the carbohydrate structure like that of sulphoquinovosyl diglyceride 2 stick out of the sur-face like phosphatidyl glycerol too 3 , but are topogra-phically rather arranged in gaps or pores of the membrane. Fatty acids are not involved in this antigen-antibody reactions as precipitation studies with hydrat-ed lipids and with lipids of different fatty acid com-positions have revealed. On the other side, if sugar components represent the immunologically determinant groups, then it should be possible to confirm the results obtained with vertebrate antisera by using heterophilic agglutinins from plants (so-called lectins) 4 , inverte-brates and fish eggs. These are known to be excellent tools for the specific detection of terminal and inner-chain carbohydrate structures of different configurations and conformations 5 . As D-galactose is the main deter-minant sugar in plant glycolipids, we tested some of the galactose specific lectins in our system. It could be found, that the agglutinin from Ricinus communis, the anti-galactosyl specificity of which is well established 4 , agglu-tinated chloroplasts and thylakoidfragments in a very specific way. This agglutination was inhibited by 0.03 M D-galactose, 0.06 M lactose, raffinose, stachyose, mono-galactosyl glycerol (/9-glycosidic linkage), and digalac-tosyl glycerol (a-glycosidic linkage of D-galactose), but not by D-glucose, and L-arabinose. In addition, the spe-cific anti-a-galactosyl agglutinin 6 ("anti-B") from Salmo trutta (trout) also reacts well, especially after protease treatment. It is inhibited by carbohydrates with terminal a-glycosidic bound D-galactose (raffinose, stachyose, digalactosyl glycerol 0.03 M) and not by monogalactosyl glycerol, lactose, D-glucose, D-and L-arabinose. We got weaker reactions with agglutinins from fungal origin like Fomes fomentarius, a lectin known as anti-B (a-galactosyl) reagent 4 ' 7 , whereas other agglutinins (Arachis hypogoea "anti-T") directed to D-galactose-like structures 8 gave very weak 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 27b, 1113 [1972]; received June 27 1972) 
  Published    1972 
  Keywords    Heterophilic agglutinins, glycolipids, chloroplasts, thylakoids, lectins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/27/ZNB-1972-27b-1113_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1972-27b-1113_n 
 Volume    27 
2Author    D. Schulz, A. Passeri, M. Schmidt, S. Lang, F. W. Agner, V. Wray, W. GunkelRequires cookie*
 Title    Marine Biosurfactants, I. Screening for Biosurfactants among Crude Oil Degrading Marine Microorganisms from the North Sea  
 Abstract    Three bacterial strains o f marine origin were isolated during a screening for biosurfactants among w-alkane degrading microorganisms. One strain -identified as Alcaligenes sp. MM 1 -produced a novel glucose lipid. In the case o f A rthrobacter sp. EK 1 the well-known trehalose tetraester was found as major com ponent. From another pure culture classified as Arthrobac­ ter sp. SI 1, extracellular emulsifying agents with properties indicating high molecular weight substances were detected. Furthermore trehalose corynom ycolates were found at up to 2 g/1. The isolated biosurfactants showed good interfacial and emulsifying properties. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 197 (1991); received October 9 1990 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Oil Pollution, Marine M icroorganisms, Biosurfactants, Glycolipids, Emulsifier 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0197.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0197 
 Volume    46 
3Author    R. Egina, H. Aase, M. Onika, U. N. Th, U. Tu Rier, A. Lfons, R. Adunz, G. Eorg, H. SchmRequires cookie*
 Title    Determination of Glycolipids, Sulfolipid and Phospholipids in the Thylakoid Membrane  
 Abstract    D eterm ination of binding o f antibodies to lipids onto the surface o f the thylakoid mem­ brane, before and after the removal of the CF,-complex with sodium bromide, showed that in the immediate vicinity of CF, sulfolipid and monogalactolipid occur in higher concentration and are therefore arranged in domains. The m olar ratio of the CF,-complex to glycolipids was determined in Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts o f different structure. Thus, in the chlorophyll-deficient tobacco m utants N. tabacum Su/su and Su/su var. Aurea, the m olar ratio o f C F ,/ m onogalactolipid is the same and found to be 1:570. The structure o f the lamellar system in these m utants is characterized by a higher ratio o f strom a lamellae to grana stacks when com ­ pared to the green wild type. In the wild type the ratio CF,/m onogalactolipid is 30 per cent larger (1 :740). In contrast to this the m olar ratio CF,/sulfolipid and CF,/digalactolipid is the same in the wild type and the Su/su mutant, whereas these ratios are twice as high in the yellow m utant Nicotiana tabacum Su/su var. Aurea. The binding of glycolipids and phospholipids onto the subunits o f CF, from Spinacia olera-cea was determined in the Western blot procedure by using monospecific antisera. These ex­ periments lead to the result that the two large subunits (a and ß) are m arked by antisera to monogalactosyldiglyceride, digalactosyldiglyceride and sulfoquinovosyldiglyceride. The anti­ sera to phospholipids react differently: whereas the antiserum to phosphatidylinositol only reacts with the a-subunit, the antiserum to phosphatidylcholine and that to phosphatidylgly-cerol react just as the antisera to glycolipids with both large subunits. It is observed that the antiserum to monogalactolipid occasionally m arks the y-subunit. This might mean that the glycolipids and the respective phospholipids are tightly bound onto the reacting a-and ß-subunits of the CF,-complex. Incubation of the subunit CF, with lipase from Rhizopus arrhi-zus and with phospholipase C from Chlostridium perfringens after their transfer to the nitrocel­ lulose membrane abolishes the positive reaction of the peptides with the antisera to glycolipids and phospholipids. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 48c, 623—631 (1993); received May 17 1993 
  Published    1993 
  Keywords    CF, -Subunits, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Antibodies, Lipid-Binding 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/48/ZNC-1993-48c-0623.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1993-48c-0623 
 Volume    48 
4Author    P. He, A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Changes of the Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Leaves of Aleurites montana as a Consequence of Growth under 700 ppm C 0 2 in the Atmosphere  
 Abstract    Leaf lipids of Aleurites plants that were cultivated for 5 months in air containing 700 ppm C 0 2, were compared to those of control plants cultivated at 350 ppm C 0 2. The content of ether soluble lipids referred to dry matter is the same in C 0 2-and control plants. The com ­ parison of lipids analyzed as the pigments chlorophyll and carotenoids, phospholipids and glycolipids shows that the ratio of phospholipids and glycolipids is slightly shifted in favor of phospholipids in C 0 2-plants. Thus, within the group o f phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol occur in higher concentrations in CÖ2-plants. Although the differences in the lipid content appear moderate in C 0 2-and control plants, it is the saturation degree of fatty acids that differs substantially. The fatty acids of C 0 2-plants contain according to the higher phospholipid content approx. 5% more saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid is three-fold increased. W hereas in the phospholipid fraction saturated fatty acids comprise one half of all fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids make up for 80 to 90% in the glycolipid fraction. In C 0 2-plants not only in the phospholipid fraction but also in the glycolipid fraction saturated fatty acids occur in a higher portion. This means that not only in the cell membrane of C 0 2-plants but also in the thylakoid membrane the fluidity is decreased. Also in the wax-fraction long-chained carbonic acids with 2 0 -2 6 carbon atoms occur. A s the portion of these carbonic acids is twice as high in C 0 2-plants, it is concluded that a stronger formation of the wax layers exists in C 0 2-plants. By means of Western blotting and by the use of lipid and carotenoid antisera the binding of lipids onto proteins of photosystem II and photosystem I was analyzed. It is seen that besides the major amount of lipids which build up the thylakoid membrane, som e lipids are also bound to membrane peptides. Whereas monogalactolipid is bound to the LHCP-com-plex peptides, to the O E C r peptide and the 43 and 47 kDa chlorophyll binding peptides, the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiglyceride and phosphatidylglycerol and digalactolipid are bound to the core peptides of PS II and PS I. ß-carotene and the xanthophylls were found to be bound to the core peptides and ß-carotene and violaxanthin were also bound to the light-harvesting pigment complex. A bbreviations: PS I, photosystem I; PS II, photosystem II; LHCP, light harvesting pigment protein complex; M GDG, monogalactosyldiglyceride; D G D G , digalacto-syldiglyceride; O E Q , oxygen evolution complex peptide (33 kDa); PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Tris-HCl, tris[hydroxymethyl]amino-methane; SDS, so­ dium dodecylsulfate, EDTA, ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid; DTT, dithiothreitol; BPB, bromophenol blue (3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromphenolsulfone phthalein); Tricine, (N-tris[Hydroxymethyl]methylglycine). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 833—8 (1996); received October 2/October 29 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Leaf Lipids, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0833.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0833 
 Volume    51 
5Author    P. H., A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    A Quantitative Evaluation of the Lipid Composition of Leaves of Aleurites montana as a Consequence of Growth under 0.3 ppm S 0 2 in the Atmosphere  
 Abstract    Gassing during 14 days of Aleurites plants with 0.3 ppm S 0 2 leads to quantitative modifica­ tions of the lipid composition of leaves. The ratio of phospholipids to glycolipids is shifted from 1:3 in control plants to 1:1.8 in S 0 2-plants. Glycolipids decrease from 62% of total lipids in control plants to 50% in S 0 2-plants. On the other hand phospholipids increase from 20% in control plants to 28% of total lipids in S 0 2-plants. This implies that not only the thylakoid 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 325 (1997); received February 14/March 12 1997 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Leaf Lipids, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Pigments 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0325.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0325 
 Volume    52