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1Author    Alfred KlemmRequires cookie*
 Title    Monochiralities Caused by Sexuality  
 Abstract    It is shown how the interaction of sexuality and chirality causes monochiralities of the biosphere. In [1], Rikken and Raupach say: "We show experimen-tally that magnetochiral anisotropy can give rise to an enan-tiomeric excess in a photochemical reaction driven by unpolarized light in a parallel magnetic field, which sug-gests that this effect may have played a role in the origin of the homochirality of life."* Also the fact that outside the tropics the sun goes always to the right (left) on the northern (southern) hemisphere suggests that this effect may, via the sun-dependent growth of organisms, have played a role in the origin of the homochirality of life. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 55a, 978 (2000); received November 23 2000 
  Published    2000 
  Keywords    Evolution, Sexuality, Chirality 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/55/ZNA-2000-55a-0978_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-2000-55a-0978_n 
 Volume    55 
2Author    B. R. ThomasRequires cookie*
 Title    On the Origin of Protein Biosynthesis  
 Abstract    There is a very close steric relationship between the codon-anticodon site which accounts for the genetic code dictionary and a polynucleotide replicase site. Protein biosynthesis must therefore have arisen out of a primaeval polynucleotide replicase system. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 323 [1975]; received December 10 1974) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Evolution, Genetic Code, Codon-anticodon Site, Protein Biosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0323.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0323 
 Volume    30 
3Author    M. F. Macchiato, A. TramontanoRequires cookie*
 Title    Thermodynamic Approach to a Possible Theory of the Evolution of a Genetic Code  
 Abstract    One of the distinctive features of a biological system is its remoteness from equilibrium: for the treatment of the information exchanged by these systems with the external world the concept of information amount is not sufficient because for nonequilibrium systems we need further specifications about information, i. e. its value. We defined the information value for a genetic code. The comparison of the results we had applying such a definition to the three genetic codes found in nature shows that our definition described the system of transmission and reception of information in a biological organism very well and that the information value of a genetic code can be considered as an index of its efficiency, i.e. of its ability to minimize the effects of a mutation of the genotype on the phenotype. Otherwise, our results show that the information value, and hence the efficiency of the three known codes is the same and suggest that the prerequisite of the evolution of the codes is the preservation of this value. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 1031—1037 (1982); received January 26 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Codes, Information Value, Mutations, Efficiency, Evolution 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-1031.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-1031 
 Volume    37 
4Author    Gottfried Küppers, Karl-Josef Diederich, Ulrich ZimRequires cookie*
 Title    Cell Fusion by Simulated Atmospheric Discharges: Further Support for the Hypothesis of Involvement of Electrofusion in Evolution  
 Abstract    Electrofusion of mesophyll cell protoplasts of Avena sativa was induced by simulated atmospheric discharges. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that the potential differences which occur at quite long distances from the point of lightning stroke are large enough to induce fusion. Besides electromagnetic waves which are emitted during lightning (G. Küppers and U. Zimmermann, FEBS Lett. 164, 323 (1983)) cell fusion may have also occurred directly by means of the voltage built-up on the earth during evolution in response to a lightning stroke. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 973—980 (1984); received June 5 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Electrofusion, Atmospheric Discharge, Step Voltage, Evolution, Membrane, Protoplasts 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0973.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0973 
 Volume    39 
5Author    MarcelA K Jansen3, Shmuel Malkinb, Marvin EdelmanaRequires cookie*
 Title    Differential Sensitivity of 32 kDa-D 1 Protein Degradation and Photosynthetic Electron Flow to Photosystem II Herbicides  
 Abstract    Degradation of the 32 kDa-D 1 protein, a photosystem II reaction centre component, was studied as a function of linear electron flow in visible light in the presence of various photosys­ tem II herbicides. Under these conditions, herbicide specific effects on protein degradation were clearly evident. 32 kDa-D 1 protein degradation and electron flow between Q a and Q b proved to be only partially correlated. We conclude that inhibition of protein degradation by PS II herbicides in visible light is not simply correlated to displacement of Q b. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 408—411 (1990); received December 12 1989 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Diuron, Bromoxynil, Dinoseb, Oxygen, Evolution, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0408.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0408 
 Volume    45 
6Author    Aftab Ahmed, Meeno Jahan, Gerhard Braunitzer, Helmut PechlanerRequires cookie*
 Title    (Mustela putorius, Mustelidae) Hemoglobins  
 Abstract    The com plete am ino acid sequences o f the hem oglobins from the adult European polecat (Mustela putorius) are presented. The erythrocytes contain two hem oglobin com ponents and three globin chains (a I . a l l and ß). The primary structure of globin chains and o f the tryptic peptides determ ined in liquid-and gas-phase sequantors. Comparing the sequences o f the globin chains o f the polecat with that o f human H b -A , 17 (23.9%) substitutions were recognized in the a l , 16 (22.5%) in the a l l and 14 (20.4%) in the ß chain. A high degree o f hom ology observed with other representatives of the family M ustelidae. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 44b, 817—8 (1989); received D ecem ber 22 1988 
  Published    1989 
  Keywords    European Polecat, Carnivora, H em oglobin, Primary Structure, Evolution 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/44/ZNB-1989-44b-0817.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1989-44b-0817 
 Volume    44 
7Author    M. Ark, P. Staves, DavidP. BlochRequires cookie*
 Title    Evolution of E. coli tRNAI,e: Evidence of Derivation from Other tRNAs  
 Abstract    Two E. coli tR N A Ile sequences were com pared against those of 36 other E. coli tRN As. tR N A Ile 1 was found to bear high similarity with tR N A Val 1 (E = 1.11 x 10" 18) while tR N A Ile 2 had the greatest match (£ = 3 .4 0 x 10" 19) with tR N A Lysl (E is the expected num ber of such matches, per search, based on coincidence). These m atches, which we consider to represent homologies, extend from base 7 to base 67 in the form er and base 7 to the end (76) in the latter pair. These results coupled wim otners on tne lower activity ot isoleucine in reactions postulated to be im portant in primitive protein synthesis (i.e. esterification reactions and non-enzym atic activation by A TP [1—3]) lead us to propose that isoleucine was included among the proteinaceous amino acids, and received its anticodonic assignment, relatively late in evolution through m utation of tR N A s previously employed for other amino acids. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42c, 129 (1987); received June 13/September 4 1986 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    Transfer R N A, Evolution, Codon Assignments, Sequence Homology, Hydrophobicity 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/42/ZNC-1987-42c-0129.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1987-42c-0129 
 Volume    42 
8Author    Z. NaturforschRequires cookie*
 Title    Two Separate Genes Encode the Catalytic 70 kDa V-ATPase Subunit in Psilotum and Equisetum  
 Abstract    T hom as Starke, T im othy P. L inkkila, an d Jo h a n n Peter G o g arten Department o f Molecular and Cell Biology, U niversity o f Connecticut, Vacuolar type ATPases have been found on various endomem branes o f eukaryotic cells, e.g. lysosomes, chromaffin granules, vesicles derived from the G olgi apparatus, endosom es and vacuoles. Although this ATPase type is targeted to different compartments in one cell, only one gene for each subunit had been found per genome. Using PCR across intron-exon boundaries we show that two different genes encode the cat­ alytic subunit o f the V-ATPase in Psilotum nudum and Equisetum arvense. The substitution rates for the three codon positions and the intervening sequences show that in Psilotum both genes are transcribed and are under selection pressure, however, this seems not to be the case for Equisetum. The relatively high similarity between the two genes found in each species as compared to the interspecies similarities suggest that for som e time after the gene duplication had occurred the two copies were subject to gene conversion mechanisms. An unexpected de­ gree o f conservation o f the intervening sequences themselves is noted and statistically verified, however, no structural constraints that could explain these findings were detected. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 613 (1991); received April 5 1991 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    V-ATPase, Intron-Exon Boundaries, Gene Duplication, Evolution, Polymerase Chain Reaction 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0613.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0613 
 Volume    46 
9Author    MarcelA K Jansen, Klaus PfisterRequires cookie*
 Title    Conserved Kinetics at the Reducing Side of Reaction-Center II in Photosynthetic Organisms; Changed Kinetics in Triazine-Resistant Weeds  
 Abstract    The decay o f chlorophyll variable fluorescence after a "single turnover" flash is generally assumed to represent the reoxidation o f the reduced quinone Qa. We have observed that the kinetics o f this decay are very similar in a wide variety o f species. Comparing 28 different spe­ cies, we found an average half decay time o f 314 ± 4 6 (isec. N o systematic correlations were found between the decay rate and biochemical or physiological specializations such as C 2, C 4 or C A M . This indicates that structural as well as functional factors controlling photosystem II electron transfer between Qa and Qb are highly conserved. Apparently, the freedom for natural structural variations in this region is very limited. Triazine resistant plants, characterized by an altered amino acid sequence o f the D 1 protein, have clearly decreased rates o f Qa/Q b electron transfer. We found an average half decay time o f 946 ± 100 jisec (5 species). However, this three-fold decrease is much less than previously re­ ported. Therefore, if alterations o f photosystem II electron transfer efficiency contributes to an often reported reduction o f "ecological fitness", this contribution is smaller than was hitherto assumed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 441—4 (1990); received November 27 1989 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Evolution, Photosystem II, Triazine Resistance, p sb A Conservation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0441.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0441 
 Volume    45