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1Author    Hans GrulerRequires cookie*
 Title    Chemoelastic Effect of Membranes  
 Abstract    The elastic theory of a uniaxial membrane in an asymmetric environment predicts a spontaneous splay deformation. This spontaneous curvature of the membrane is discussed by the intrinsic splay of the membrane molecules (e. g. wedge shaped molecules) and their polar orientation. The chemoelastic effect is the polar orientation induced by the asymmetric environment in connection with the intrinsic splay. This effect is also discussed for polyelectrolytes where a small change of pH (~0.1) can lead to a spontaneous curvature of 104 cm-1. The actual shape of red blood cells can be explained by the spontaneous splay and a change in environment induces the change in shape of these cells. A model is proposed for two conical bodies swimming in a uniaxial membrane which interact with each other through elastic coupling. The force between the bodies can be either attractive or repulsive. As an example of this model clustering of proteins is discussed. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 608—614 [1975]; received June 18 1975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    Membrane, Elasticity, Erythrocyte, Enzyme Coupling 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0608.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0608 
 Volume    30 
2Author    Nicholas Zagris, CharlesG. MeltonRequires cookie*
 Title    Hemoglobins in Single Chick Erythrocytes as Determined by a Differential Elution Procedure  
 Abstract    The switch from embryonic to adult hemoglobin (Hb) has been studied in vivo by a correlated cytological and electrophoretic analysis of circulating red blood cells from early, purely embryonic-Hb stages to purely adult-Hb stages including the adult chicken. It has been discovered, by using an acid buffer treatment that selectively elutes adult but not embryonic Hb from intact red blood cells, that embryonic and adult Hbs occur together in single cells, and that the switch occurs simultaneously in all cells. These results together with knowledge of the chick erythroid cell dynamics and ontogenetic titers indicate that the initiation of adult Hb synthesis occurs in the circulation in cells previously committed only to embryonic Hb synthesis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 330 (1978); received January 17/March 10 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Chick, Erythrocyte, Hemoglobins, Selective Elution 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0330.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0330 
 Volume    33 
3Author    H. Alina, Kleszczyń Ska, Janusz SarapukRequires cookie*
 Title    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Ions on Organolead-Induced Hemolysis of Erythrocytes  
 Abstract    The influence of some inorganic (K +, Mg2+, and A l3+) and organic C"H2"+1 S 0 3^, n -12 and 14) ions was studied on the hemolysis of erythrocytes (RBC) caused by organolead compounds (tripropyllead -TPL, tributyllead -TBL and triphenyllead -TPhL chlorides). It was found that sulfonate anions increased the hemolytic effect induced by triorganoleads, while inorganic cations protected RBC against the triorganoleads action, especially when the latter were used at small concentrations. This protection was weaker when the concentration of organoleads increased and depended on the kind of ion. The protective efficacy sequence was like that: Mg2+ > A l3+ > K +. The less hemolytic of the triorganoleads studied was TPL. TBL was slightly more effective than TPhL. The efficacy of the sulfonate ions to increase the triorganolead chloride -induced hemolysis was practically the same for TPL and TBL. A weaker efficacy of C i2H25S03+ was observed when TPhL was used as RBC membrane modifier. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 853—856 (2001); received February 26/March 27 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Organoleads, Erythrocytes, Hemolysis Inhibition 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0853.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0853 
 Volume    56 
4Author    R. Hampp, C. KriebitzschRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Zinc and Cadmium on 5-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase of Red Blood Cells in Protecting against Enzyme Losses during Storage  
 Abstract    The effect of zinc and cadmium on <5-aminolevulinate dehydratase of bovine erythrocytes stored at — 30 °C for different times was determined. The results show a. storage of erythrocytes leads to an enhancement of the enzyme activity, which after six weeks is 165% (500 [*.M ZnCl2) respectively 220% (100 /um CdCl2) for red blood cells of calves, and after four weeks is 420% respectively 450% (same concentrations) for red blood cells of adult cattle, b. the older the samples are, the higher is the metal concentration, needed for activation. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 434 [1975]; received March 5/April 151975) 
  Published    1975 
  Keywords    <5-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase, Erythrocytes, Zinc, Cadmium 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/30/ZNC-1975-30c-0434.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1975-30c-0434 
 Volume    30 
5Author    Dieter Auer, Gerhard BrandnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Loading of H um an Red Blood Cells with D N A and R N A  
 Abstract    Human erythrocytes were suspended in Hank's solution containing mammalian or viral D N A or R N A . After dialysis at 0 ° C first against water and subsequently against Hank's solution, and a further incubation at 37 °C , the erythrocytes were found to be loaded with the nucleic acids. The nucleic acid trapped in the erythrocytes exhibited up to 35 per cent of the external con­ centration. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 149 [1976]; received November 24 1975) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Erythrocytes, Trapping, Gene Transfer, Hemolysis, SV40 D N A 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0149.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0149 
 Volume    31 
6Author    Ping-Lu LiRequires cookie*
 Title    Cytotoxicity of Cobra (Naja naja kaouthia) Venom on Rabbit Red Blood Cells and S-180 Tumor Cells in the Presence of Tetracaine, Lidocaine and Procaine  
 Abstract    The cytocidal action of Naja naja kaouthia venom on rabbit red blood cells and S-180 tumor cells treated with local anesthetics (tetracaine, lidocaine and procaine) were studied. The S-180 cells were more sensitive to the venom than the red blood cells which required albumin for ef­ ficient hemolysis in the 10 minute assay. All three local anesthetics at lower concentrations protected both cell types against venom hemolysis. At higher concentrations the local anesthetics enhanced the cell lysis to 100%. The effectiveness of the local anesthetics for both the inhibition and enhancement phases of cytotoxicity was tetracaine > lidocaine > procaine. This is the same order as their anesthetic effectiveness, lipid solubility and their protein binding. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 268 (1980); received October 8 1979 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Local Anesthetics, Cobra Venom, Cytotoxicity, Erythrocytes, Tumor Cells 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0268.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0268 
 Volume    35 
7Author    Peter Scheurich, Ulrich Zimmermann, Maja Mischel, Ingolf LamprechtRequires cookie*
 Title    Membrane Fusion and Deformation of Red Blood Cells by Electric Fields  
 Abstract    Human red blood cells suspended in a slightly hypotonic solution o f low electric conductivity were exposed to an inhomogeneous and alternating electric field (sine wave, 30 V peak-to-peak value, electrode distance 120 |im, 0.5 to 2 MHz). Due to the dielectrophoretic effect the cells align parallel to the field lines under the formation o f pearl chains. At high voltages (10 V amplitude) membrane fusion is observed between the adhered red blood cells in the pearl chains, whereby the chains become attached to the electrodes. In contrast to the pearl chains observed at voltages o f up to 5 V amplitude the resulting fused and uniform aggregates which exhibit no recognisable individual cells under the light microscope, remain stable, even after the alternating electric field has been switched off or after haemolysis in response to osmotic shock. The fused aggregates are highly elastic. If the field strength o f the applied alternating electric field is further increased they are stretched in the direction o f the opposite electrode. Frequently, bridges are formed between the two electrodes. The uniform bridges remain stable for some time even in the absence o f an electric field. The possibility o f cell fusion and its initiation by electrical breakdown of the cell membranes are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 1081—1085 (1980); received August 21 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Deformability, Dielectrophoresis, Electric Breakdown, Erythrocytes, Fusion 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-1081.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-1081 
 Volume    35 
8Author    T. K. Mandal, S. N. ChatterjeeRequires cookie*
 Title    Electron Microscopic Study of the Polymyxin Treated Goat Erythrocytes  
 Abstract    Polymyxin B produced dose dependent changes in the surface topography o f the goat erythrocyte cells. Transformation from the normal biconcave discs through crenated structures to the final rounded or spherical shape was recorded by scanning electron m icroscopy. A m axim um o f three to four crenations per cell was recorded corresponding to a polym yxin dose o f 15.62 ng/ml. Transmission electron m icroscopy o f the ultrathin sections o f treated or untreated erythrocytes indicated that the crenations were formed by protrusions o f the plasma membrane, occurring presumably because o f the local increase o f m em brane fluidity after polym yxin treatment. Changes in the shape o f the erythrocytes to the ultim ate rounded forms were also indicated by the transmission electron microscopy. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 776—7 (1984); received April 24 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Polymyxin B, Erythrocytes, Surface Topography, Electron M icroscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0776.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0776 
 Volume    39 
9Author    C. Ballario, A. Bonincontro, C. Cametti, A. Rosi, L. SportelliRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Extracellular Alkali Metal Salts on the Electric Parameters of Human Erythrocytes in Normal and Pathological Conditions (Homozygous ^-Thalassemia)  
 Abstract    The conductivity of human erythrocyte cells dispersed in various uni-univalent electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KC1, LiCl, CsCl; 0.15 m) have been measured in the frequency range from 10 KHz to 100 MHz at five temperatures between 5 and 45 °C. The results were analyzed in the light of the theory of conductivity polarization of a suspension of ellipsoidal particles covered with two confocal shells. Differences in the electrical parameters of the membrane between normal and homozygous /?-thalassemic cells have been evidentiated. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1163—1169 (1984); received April 24/September 10 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Conductivity, Radiowave Frequencies, Electrolyte Solutions, Erythrocytes, Homozygous /?-Thalassemic Erythrocytes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-1163.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-1163 
 Volume    39 
10Author    Arkadiusz KozubekRequires cookie*
 Title    Higher Cardol Homologues (5-Alkenylresorcinols) from Rye Affect the Red Cell Membrane-Water Transport  
 Abstract    The influence o f 5-heptadecenylresorcinol and total rye 5-alkenylresorcinols isolated from rye grains on the red blood cell water perm eability was studied using osm otic shrinkage experim ents performed in 300 m M sucrose. The studied com pounds induced significant increase o f erythro­ cyte water permeability. The threshold concentration needed for the increase o f water per­ meability was in an order o f 10_ 6 m ol/l. The temperature dependence o f the observed process showed the discontinuity which was related to the 5-alkenylresorcinol transition temperatures. It was shown also that alkenylresorcinols did not exert the biphasic action on hypotonic lysis o f erythrocytes usually observed for water soluble surfactants. The sp ecific lysine activity is postulated for the studied compounds. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 80 (1985); received N ovem ber 2 1984 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Phenolic Lipids, 5-Alkenylresorcinols, Rye, Erythrocytes, Water Perm eability 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0080.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0080 
 Volume    40 
11Author    Fumio Yoshii, Isao Kaetsu, Akio YamadaRequires cookie*
 Title    Immobilization of Erythrocytes by Radiation Polymerization of Glass-Forming Monomers at Low Temperatures  
 Abstract    The immobilization of erythrocyte as the whole cell without hemolysis was studied. It found that erythrocyte could be treated and immobilized stably by radiation polymerization o f specific monomers having high viscous and long oxyethylene units chain such as methoxypolyethylene-glycol methacrylate (M-23G) and polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (14G). Irradiation dose without hemolysis was limited less than lxl05r and a comonomer system consisting o f M -23G-14G, 1:1 and small quantity o f glutaraldehyde (GA) was the optimum carrier composition. The functional properties o f the immobilized erythrocyte was also investigated. It was found that the immobilized cell could be carried out carbon monoxide-oxygen gas exchange effectively and reversibly so as in the intact cell. The immobilized erythrocyte also showed the catalase activity just as in the intact cell. The stability o f erythrocyte increased greatly by the immobilization for standing at low and room temperatures and hardly hemolyzed in non-isotonic medium such as pure water. It was observed in scanning electron microscope that the immobilized erythrocyte had a hollow disk shape same as in intact cell and covered with a thin polymer layer. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 1062—1067 (1981); received June 2 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Erythrocyte, Radiation Polymerization, Immobilization, Glass-Forming Monomer, Low Temperature, 0 2-Uptake 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-1062.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-1062 
 Volume    36