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1998 (4)
1Author    Achim StephanRequires cookie*
 Title    Varieties of Emergence in Artificial and Natural Systems  
 Abstract    In different disciplines such as philosophy o f mind, dynamical systems theory, and connec­ tionism the term 'em ergence' has different jobs to perform. Therefore, various concepts of em ergence are developed and examined. While weaker versions are compatible with prop­ erty reductionism, stronger versions are not. Within philosophy of mind, particularly within the qualia debate there is a need for a strong notion of emergence, while in discussions of emergent properties of connectionist nets or of dynamical systems one can do with weaker notions of emergence. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 639 (1998); received April 20 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Emergence, Reduction, Connectionism, Qualia, Synergetics 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0639.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0639 
 Volume    53 
2Author    H. Enrik WalterRequires cookie*
 Title    Emergence and the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Psychiatry  
 Abstract    In this paper, I introduce the philosophical notion of strong emergence and argue that it is almost exclusively applied to properties related to (conscious) subjective experience. Con­ trary to the still common attitude of refraining anxiously from these topics, I argue that we have a promising scientific approach to them: the cognitive neurosciences. I list a spectrum of interesting, potentially strongly emergent properties already investigated, and discuss the example of volition in more detail. Psychiatric disorders, like antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder, open new ways for understanding aspects of volition such as willed action, decision making, and agency. I conclude that the notion of strong emergence is only a preliminary label which, however, might be understood as a challenge for empirical scientists to explain and understand phenomena related to subjectiv­ ity and consciousness. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 723—737 (1998); received April 22 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Emergence, Prefrontal Cortex, Neuropsychiatry, Decision Making, Volition Agency 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0723.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0723 
 Volume    53 
3Author    Stefan Reimann, Rapporteur, JoaquinM. Fuster, Alfred Gierer, Gottfried Mayer-Kress, Titus Neumann, Pieter Roelfsem, Stefan Rotter, Gregor Schöner, Achim Stephan, Eiion Vaadia, Henrik WalterRequires cookie*
 Title    Group Report: Emergent Properties of Natural and Artificial Systems* On the Meanings of Emergence  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 770—774 (1998); received April 16 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Emergence, Pattern Formation, Self-Organization, Pre-Determinism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0770.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0770 
 Volume    53 
4Author    Gottfried Mayer-KressRequires cookie*
 Title    Non-Linear Mechanisms in the Brain  
 Abstract    Non-linear dynamical models of brain activity can describe the spontaneous emergence of large-scale coherent structures both in a temporal and spatial domain. We discuss a number of discrete time dynamical neuron models that illustrate some of the mechanisms involved. Of special interest is the phenomenon of spatio-temporal stochastic resonance in which co­ herent structures emerge as a result of the interaction of the neuronal system with external noise at a given level punitive data. We then discuss the general role of stochastic noise in brain dynamics and how similar concepts can be studied in the context of networks of con­ nected brains on the Internet. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 677 (1998); received April 29 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Neuronal Models, Non-Linear Dynamics, Stochastic Resonance, Chaos, Emergence 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0677.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0677 
 Volume    53