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1Author    Karl-Heinz Kogel, Birgit Heck, Gerd Kogel, Bruno Moerschbacher, Hans-Joachim ReisenerRequires cookie*
 Title    A Fungal Elicitor of the Resistance Response in Wheat  
 Abstract    A n elicitor of the lignification response in wheat leaves was isolated from the germ-tube walls of wheat stem rust. The active compound causes metabolic changes typically correlated with the resistance response, i.e. the formation 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 743 (1985); received April 15/July 5 1985 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Elicitor, Resistance, PAL, Wheat, Puccinia 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0743_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0743_n 
 Volume    40 
2Author    A. Kio, K. Obayashi, K. Ohki, A. Kiyam, K. Azuyoshi, K. Aw AzuRequires cookie*
 Title    Partially N-Deacetylated Chitin Fragments are Strong Elicitors for (+)-Pisatin Induction in Epicotyls of Pea  
 Abstract    Chitosan derivatives classed into three groups according to their molecular size were exam­ ined for the relationships between degree of N -acetylation and phytoalexin (+)-pisatin-induc-ing activity in pea epicotyl assay. Partially N-deacetylated chitin with degree o f N-acetylation 56% (DAC 56%) was the most potent inducer o f (+)-pisatin am ong sparingly water-soluble polysaccharides including chitosan (degree o f N -acetylation 0%), DAC 32%, and chitin. Among the intermediate-sized molecules obtained from degradation of the chitosan and the DACs by N a N 0 2, the chitosan fragment was the most powerful elicitor for (+)-pisatin induc­ tion. The N a N 0 2-degraded DAC 56% exhibited a com parable activity to the N a N 0 2 -degrad-ed chitosan at low concentrations. The N a N 0 2-degraded fragments as well as the native poly­ mer induced a relatively high am ount of (+)-pisatin, while the acetone precipitate of chitosan oligomers from the HCl-catalyzed hydrolysate and their partially N-acetylated derivatives ex­ hibited a m oderate (+)-pisatin-inducing activity. These findings suggest the possibility that partially N-deacetylated chitin fragments could be one o f the most promising elicitors in the pea system. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 302—308 (1994); received January 14/February 24 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Elicitor, Chitosan, Chitin Pea, Phytoalexin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0302.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0302 
 Volume    49 
3Author    WolfgangF. Osswald, Sigrid Zieboll, E. F. ElstnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Comparison of pH Changes and Elicitor Induced Production of Glyceollin Isomers in Soybean Cotyledons  
 Abstract    During the incubation of soybean cotyledons with Pmg-elicitor for 22 hours the pH of the diffusion droplets increases from 7.2 to 8.3. This pH-shift is a precondition for the formation of the typical red colour of the diffusion droplet. After inhibiting the pH-shift by the use of 100 mM phosphate or Tris buffer instead of 10 mM buffer as solvent for the elicitor, the red colour is no longer formed with the exeption of 100 mM Ammediol buffer. However, the normal pattern of pterocarpan induction can be measured in the absence of the red colour in the diffusion droplet. Tris and Ammediol buffers exhibited a smaller pterocarpan induction as compared to phosphate buffer as solvent for the Pmg-elicitor. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 477—481 (1985); received April 22 1985 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    pH Changes, Elicitor, Glyceollin Isomers, Soybean Cotyledons 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0477.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0477 
 Volume    40 
4Author    Susanne Daniel, Walter Hinderer, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Elicitor-induced Changes of Enzyme Activities Related to Isoflavone and Pterocarpan Accumulation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cell Suspension Cultures  
 Abstract    The extractable activities of thirteen enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism have been measured in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cell suspension cultures after treatment with an elicitor from the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. The cell culture, derived from the A. rabiei resistant cultivar ILC 3279, constitutively accumulated the isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin together with their 7-O-glucosides and the 7-0-glucoside-6"-malonates. After elicitor application the cells rapidly form the pterocarpan phytoalexins medicarpin and maackiain. Among the enzymes of primary metabolism only the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase exhibited a significant increase in activity with a maximum four hours after application of the elicitor. In phenylpropane metabolism the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase were enhanced by the elicitor and exhibited highest levels after four hours. In contrast the chalcone isomerase activity was not influenced by the elicitor. A substantial enhancement occurred with the isoflavone 7-O-glucosyltransferase activity eight hours after elicitor application. The results suggest that in this cell culture the elicitor-induced biosynthesis of pterocarpan phytoalexins was accompanied with a rapid and transient increase of those enzyme activities which are located at branching points of related pathways, i.e. pentose phosphate cycle, general phenylpropane metabolism, flavonoid formation and isoflavone conjugation. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 536—544 (1988); received April 8 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Cicer arietinum, Isoflavones, Pterocarpans, Phytoalexins, Elicitor 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0536.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0536 
 Volume    43 
5Author    Kohki Akiyamaa, Kazuyoshi Kawazua, Akio KobayashibRequires cookie*
 Title    Partially N-Deacetylated Chitin Oligomers (Pentamer to Heptamer) are Potential Elicitors for (+)-Pisatin Induction in Pea Epicotyls  
 Abstract    Oligomers (dimer to heptamer) of chitosan and their partially/completely N-acetylated derivatives were examined for (+)-pisatin-inducing activities in pea epicotyl elicitor assay at concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 100 j.ig/ml. The structures of the oligomers were analyzed by 'H NM R and M A L D I TOF MS spectrometers. The chitosan oligomers from dimer to tetramer were inactive, while the pentamer exhibited a moderate activity at 100 |ig/ml. The hexamer showed a pronounced activity at 100 |ag/ml, whereas the oligomer had no activity at the higher concentrations. Although the chitosan heptamer induced a moderate amount of (+)-pisatin (ca. 60 j.ig/g fr. wt.) at 50 (.ig/ml, the oligomer did not elicit pisatin formation at 100 |ig/ml. The dimer to tetramer of both partially N-deacetylated chitin (DAC) and chitin were totally inactive. The DAC pentamers (d.a. 31%, 52%), DAC hexamers (d.a. 26%, 41%), and DAC heptamers (d.a. 26%, 36%) exhibited significant elicitor activities at lower concen­ trations (6.25-25 [.ig/ml) than the native chitosan oligomers. The chitin pentamer to heptamer had weak or no activity. Both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine were inactive in the assay. These facts suggest that the DAC pentamer to heptamer may act as elicitors for pisatin induction in pea-fungus interactions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 391—397 (1995); received January 4/January 15 1995 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Elicitor, Chitosan, Chitin, Phytoalexin, Pisum sativum 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0391.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0391 
 Volume    50 
6Author    A. Kihiro Tai3, E. Ri, O. Hsaw Ab, K. Azuyoshi, K. Aw Azub, A. Kio, K. Obayashi3Requires cookie*
 Title    A Minimum Essential Structure of LN-3 Elicitor Activity in Bean Cotyledons  
 Abstract    A great deal of an elicitor-active oligosaccharide (1.47 g) was obtained from 40 g of poly­ saccharide laminaran with the guidance of elicitor activity in the bean cotyledon assay. Physicochemical means suggested that the oligosaccharide was a ß-1,3-and ß-l,6-linked tri­ glucoside. This was a partial structure of LN-3, having elicitor activity to alfalfa and bean. The triglucoside exhibited a specific elicitor activity to bean, not to alfalfa and pea. The highly digested hydrolysate containing monom er and dimers as major components did not show elicitor activity in the bean cotyledon assay. The structural feature was essential for elicitation of phytoalexin accumulation in bean cotyledons. These results suggested that this triglucoside had a specific elicitor activity and a minimum elicitor-active entity to bean cotyledons. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 15 (1996); received October 27/Novem ber 21 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Elicitor, Phytoalexin Accumulation, Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L, Triglucoside 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0015.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0015 
 Volume    51 
7Author    Heiner Strasser, Christina Hoffmann, Hans Grisebach, Ulrich MaternRequires cookie*
 Title    Are Polyphosphoinositides Involved in Signal Transduction of Elicitor-Induced Phytoalexin Synthesis in Cultured Plant Cells?  
 Abstract    The phospholipids of cultured parsley and soybean cells were labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol, [2-3H]glycerol or [32P]orthophosphate. By one-and two-dimensional chromatographic compari­ son of the labelled phospholipids with reference substances, the presence of l-(3-sn-phos-phatidyl)-D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate and l-(3-sn-phosphatidyl)-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate was demonstrated in these cultures. These results were corroborated by analysis of the deacyla-tion products. Cells were labelled with either myo-[2-3H]inositol, [2-3H]glycerol or [32P]ortho-phosphate and subsequently challenged with elicitor for various lengths of time. Radioactivity in individual phosphoinositides from these cells was determined. No significant influence of elicitor-challenge of either soybean or parsley cells on incorporation of 3H or 32P into polyphospho­ inositides was found between 0.5 and 20 min after elicitor addition. Intro d u ctio n 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 717 (1986); received April 17/May 7 1986 
  Published    1986 
  Keywords    Polyphosphoinositides, Elicitors, Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Cells, Soybean (Glycine max) Cells, Turnover 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/41/ZNC-1986-41c-0717.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1986-41c-0717 
 Volume    41 
8Author    Claudia Biicker, Barbara Witte, Ursula Windmiillera, HansJ. GrambowRequires cookie*
 Title    Anthranilate Synthase and Chorismate Mutase Activities in Stem Rust-Inoculated and Elicitor-Treated Resistant, Moderately Resistant, and Susceptible Near-Isogenic Wheat Lines  
 Abstract    Anthranilate synthase and chorismate mutase activities which control the flow of substrate from chorismate into the tryptophan pathway and into the phenylalanine/tyrosine pathway, respectively, were examined in three near isogenic wheat lines of Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Prelude Sr5, highly resistant to stem rust infection; cv. Prelude Sr24, moderately resistant; cv. Prelude srx, susceptible). The activities of both enzymes were found to increase in re­ sponse to inoculation with the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici or treatment with Pgt elicitor. Thus, both the tryptophan branch and the phenylalanine branch appear to contribute to the resistance response in wheat leaves. Only the cytosolic but not the plastidic fraction of the enzyme activities appears to be affected by fungal infection or elicitor treat­ ment. Some differences with respect to degree and time dependency of enzyme activation were noticed between the three wheat lines following inoculation but not after treatment with the Pgt elicitor. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50c, 54 (1995); received September 7/October 21 1994 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Anthranilate Synthase, Chorismate Mutase, Elicitor, Triticum aestivum, Puccinia graminis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/50/ZNC-1995-50c-0054.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1995-50c-0054 
 Volume    50 
9Author    Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, HannsUlrich SeitzRequires cookie*
 Title    Rapid Responses of Cultured Carrot Cells and Protoplasts to an Elicitor from the Cell Wall of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp  
 Abstract    , A llgem eine Botanik und P flanzenphysiologie, A u f der M orgenstelle Suspension cultured cells of an anthocyanin-containing cell line (D C b) from Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus respond very rapidly to treatment with a soluble carbohydrate elicitor from the wall of the oom ycete Pythium aphanidermatum by synthesizing 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is incorpo­ rated into the plant cell wall. Enzym es of phenol m etabolism , phenylalanine am m onia-lyase (P A L) and chalcone synthase (C H S), respond to elicitor treatment in different ways. Both the catalytic activity o f PAL and its subunit concentration, measured by means o f im m unoblotting, show a transient increase upon elicitation, whereas CHS the initial enzym e o f the flavonoid pathway, is inhibited after administration of the elicitor. and consequently anthocyanin accum ula­ tion ceases. In protoplasts derived from the cultured cells a very similar elicitor-induced response has been observed. Lacking a cell wall, the protoplasts secrete the 4-hydroxybenzoic acid into the culture fluid. The carrot protoplasts isolated by wall degrading enzym es retain their responsive­ ness to the fungal carbohydrate elicitor. The value o f the protoplast system for studying the im m ediate events following elicitor treatment is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 44c, 1020—1028 (1989); received Septem ber 13 1989 
  Published    1989 
  Keywords    Carrot Cell Cultures, Elicitor, 4-Hydroxybenzoic A cid, Protoplasts, Pythium aphanidermatum 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/44/ZNC-1989-44c-1020.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1989-44c-1020 
 Volume    44 
10Author    Joachim Bollmann, Klaus HahlbrockRequires cookie*
 Title    Timing of Changes in Protein Synthesis Pattern in Elicitor-Treated Cell Suspension Cultures of Parsley ( Petroselinum crispum)  
 Abstract    The timing o f changes in the protein synthesis pattern o f elicitor-treated, [35S]methionine-labelled parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum) was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electropho­ resis. Five groups were distinguished from a large number o f elicitor-responsive as well as un­ responsive proteins. Two groups were synthesized de novo either early or late after elicitor ap­ plication; two other groups were strongly reduced in their rates o f synthesis either early or late after elicitor application; and one group was not appreciably affected at all. The elicitor-in-duced changes altered the total protein com position considerably. A few selected, induced pro­ teins were functionally identified. These included two early induced enzymes, phenylalanine amm onia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coum arate:C oA ligase (4C L), and a late induced enzyme, a ber-gaptol O-methyltransferase (BM T) which is specifically involved in the biosynthesis o f furano-coumarin phytoalexins. The biological significance o f the observed differential timing o f changes in protein synthesis rates is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 1011 (1990); received May 30 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Cell Culture, Elicitor, Petroselinum crispum, Protein Synthesis, Two-Dim ensional Gel Electrophoresis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-1011.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-1011 
 Volume    45