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1Author    Susanne Daniel, Walter Hinderer, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Elicitor-induced Changes of Enzyme Activities Related to Isoflavone and Pterocarpan Accumulation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cell Suspension Cultures  
 Abstract    The extractable activities of thirteen enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism have been measured in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cell suspension cultures after treatment with an elicitor from the fungus Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. The cell culture, derived from the A. rabiei resistant cultivar ILC 3279, constitutively accumulated the isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin together with their 7-O-glucosides and the 7-0-glucoside-6"-malonates. After elicitor application the cells rapidly form the pterocarpan phytoalexins medicarpin and maackiain. Among the enzymes of primary metabolism only the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase exhibited a significant increase in activity with a maximum four hours after application of the elicitor. In phenylpropane metabolism the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase were enhanced by the elicitor and exhibited highest levels after four hours. In contrast the chalcone isomerase activity was not influenced by the elicitor. A substantial enhancement occurred with the isoflavone 7-O-glucosyltransferase activity eight hours after elicitor application. The results suggest that in this cell culture the elicitor-induced biosynthesis of pterocarpan phytoalexins was accompanied with a rapid and transient increase of those enzyme activities which are located at branching points of related pathways, i.e. pentose phosphate cycle, general phenylpropane metabolism, flavonoid formation and isoflavone conjugation. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 536—544 (1988); received April 8 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Cicer arietinum, Isoflavones, Pterocarpans, Phytoalexins, Elicitor 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0536.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0536 
 Volume    43 
2Author    H. Rembold, Ch WeignerRequires cookie*
 Title    Cicer arietinum, Exudate  
 Abstract    The exudate dry matter o f the Cicer arietinum geno­ type ICC 506 is com posed o f three main organic acids, malate (61.2%), oxalate (28.6%), and glucose-6 -phosphate (5.5%). Minor com ponents are citrate (2.5%), succinate (1.2%), m alonate (0.6%), oxalacetate (0 .2 %), and fumarate (0 .2 %). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 922 (1990); received April 301990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Cicer arietinum, Exudate, Citrate, Fumarate, Glucose-6 -phosphate 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0922_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0922_n 
 Volume    45 
3Author    Ulrike Mackenbrock, Ralph Vogelsang, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Isoflavone and Pterocarpan Malonylglucosides and ß -l ,3 -G l u c a n -and Chitin-Hydrolases are Vacuolar Constituents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  
 Abstract    Cell suspension cultures of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were used to prepare protoplasts and vacuoles. The vacuolar preparation revealed only slight contaminations of cytoplasmic marker enzymes. H PLC analysis of the vacuolar extract showed that the malonylglucosides of isoflavones, isoflavanones and pterocarpans are exclusively located in the vacuole. Experi­ ments designed to determine the subcellular localization of the isoflavone malonylglucoside: malonylesterase suggest an association of this enzyme with the vacuolar membrane. Finally, a ß-l,3-glucanase and a chitinase with basic isoelectric points were also found to be localized in the chickpea vacuoles. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 815—822 (1992); received August 17 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Chickpea, Cicer arietinum, Cell Suspension Cultures, Protoplast, Vacuole 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0815.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0815 
 Volume    47 
4Author    OliverO. Tte, Andreas Pachten, Frauke Hein, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Early Elicitor-Induced Events in Chickpea Cells: Functional Links between Oxidative Burst, Sequential Occurrence of Extracellular Alkalinisation and Acidification, K+/H + Exchange and Defence-Related Gene Activation  
 Abstract    Elicitation of cultured chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cells stimulates a signal transduction pathway leading to several rapid responses: (1) oxidative burst, (2) extracellular alkalinisa­ tion, (3) extracellular acidification, (4) transient K+ efflux, and (5) activation of defence related genes all within 2 hours. Induced genes are encoding acidic and basic chitinases, a thaumatin-like protein and isoflavone reductase. All these elicitor-induced responses are in­ hibited by the Ser/Thr protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the anion channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid but stimulated by the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor cantharidin. The oxidative burst leads to a transient extracellular H2 0 2 accumulation which seems to be preceded by 0 2~ production, indicating dismutation of 0 2~ to H2 0 2. The oxida­ tive burst is accompanied by transient alkalinisation of the culture medium which is followed by long-lasting extracellular acidification. An 80 percent inhibition of the alkalinisation after complete inhibition of the H2 0 2 burst with diphenylene iodonium indicates that the elicitor induced increase of extracellular pH is mainly based on a proton consumption for 0 2~ dismutation. A simultaneous deactivation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase during oxida­ tive burst and extracellular alkalinisation is also suggested. The elicitor-stimulated extracellu­ lar acidification is inhibited by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor N, N'-dicyclohex-ylcarbodiimide assuming a reactivation of the H+-ATPase 25 min after elicitation. Extracellular acidification seems not to be necessary for elicitor-induced activation of defence related genes. Opposite modulation of K+ and proton fluxes after elicitation and/or treatment with the H +-ATPase effectors fusicoccin or N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide indicate that the elicitor induced transient K+ efflux is regulated by a K+/H+ exchange reaction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 65—76 (2001); received August 29 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Cicer arietinum, Defence Related Gene Activation, Extracellular Acidification, Oxidative Burst 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0065.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0065 
 Volume    56 
5Author    W. Erner Gunia, W. Alter Hinderer, U. Ta, W. Ittkam Pf, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Elicitor Induction of Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenases in Cell Suspension Cultures of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Their Involvement in Pterocarpan Phytoalexin Biosynthesis  
 Abstract    A yeast glucan elicitor causes the accumulation o f the pterocarpan phytoalexins medicarpin and maackiain in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cell suspension cultures established from seeds. A cell culture line from a chickpea cultivar resistant against its main fungal pathogen Asco-chyta rabiei accumulates large amounts (944 nm ol/g fr. w t.) whereas a cell culture line from a susceptible cultivar accumulates only low amounts (38 nm ol/g fr. wt.) o f the phytoalexins. This is consistent with differential accumulation o f pterocarpan phytoalexins in intact plants [1], The first reactions in the pterocarpan-specific branch o f biosynthesis are hydroxylation o f the isoflavone intermediate form ononetin in position 2' or 3', catalyzed by microsomal cyto­ chrome P-450 monooxygenases. U pon elicitation form ononetin 2'-hydroxylase undergoes a strong transient induction in the cell suspension culture o f the resistant cultivar, whereas in the cell culture from the susceptible cultivar it is only slightly induced. In both cell suspension cul­ tures the induction o f cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase and o f form ononetin 3'-hydroxylase does not show a clear correlation with phytoalexin accumulation. Experiments with different elici­ tor concentrations confirm that form ononetin 2'-hydroxylase is much more induced in cell cul­ tures from the resistant cultivar than from the susceptible one. It is concluded that the massive difference in phytoalexin accumulation between cell suspension cultures from the resistant and susceptible cultivar is determined mainly by the differential induction o f form ononetin 2'-hydroxylase activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 46c, 58—6 (1991); received October 29 1990 
  Published    1991 
  Keywords    Cicer arietinum, Yeast Elicitor, Cytochrome P-450 M onooxygenases, Pterocarpan Phytoalexins, M icrosomes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/46/ZNC-1991-46c-0058.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1991-46c-0058 
 Volume    46