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1Author    Jeffrey Karan, SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Chlorophyll a and Cytochrome c at a Heptane-Water Interface  
 Abstract    The surface pressure was measured as a function of area/molecule for chlorophyll a (Chi) and cytochrome c (Cyt) at a heptane-water interface. At a surface pressure of 6 dyn/cm the area per molecule of C h l(^ 6) = 1 1 3 ±6 Ä 2, for reduced Cyt c (red. Cyt) the A6 = 5000 ± 300 Ä 2 and for oxidized Cyt c (ox. Cyt) /3(6=4100 ± 250 A2. Cyt appears to denature at the interface. Irradiation results in a decrease of the for Chi to ^ 8 = 1 0 0 ± 5 Ä 2. There appears to be interaction between Chi and red. Cyt in a mixed film no interaction is observed between Chi and ox. Cyt. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 29c, 506 [1974]; received June 14 1974) 
  Published    1974 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Cytochrome, Monolayers, Photosynthesis, Membranes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/29/ZNC-1974-29c-0506.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1974-29c-0506 
 Volume    29 
2Author    Cornelius Lütz, Jürgen Benz, Wolfhart RüdigerRequires cookie*
 Title    Esterification of Chlorophyllide in Prolamellar Body (PLB) and Prothylakoid (PT) Fractions from ^4 vena sativa Etioplasts  
 Abstract    Etioplast membranes were fractionated into enriched prothylakoid (PT) and prolamellar body fraction (PLB) by known procedures [2]. The photoconversion o f Protochlide to Chlide was 77% in the PT fraction but only 65% in the PLB fraction with optimum NADPH concentrations. The subsequent esterification reaction proceeds in both fractions indicating that the enzyme chlorophyll synthetase is present in both fractions. In the PLB fraction, 10-15% more Chip is formed than in the PT fraction. It is concluded that the concentration of the endogenous phytol precursor is higher in the membranes still present in the PLB fraction than in the PT fraction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 58—6 (1981); received October 24 1980 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Prolamellar Bodies, Thylakoids, Chlorophylls 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0058.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0058 
 Volume    36 
3Author    SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Temperature Induced S p ectral C h an ges o f Chlorophyll in M ic e lle s and S o lu tio n  
 Abstract    Effects of temperature on the spectral properties o f chlorophyll in solution and in m icelles are reported. After correcting for the volum e expansion coefficient o f the solvent, it is observed that temperature has no detectable effects on the spectral properties o f chlorophyll (between 14 °C to 35 °C). Solutions exam ined include acetone, chloroform and ethyl alcohol. It is concluded that the temperature induced change in refractive index, o f the solvent, has no significant affect on the chlorophyll sp ec­ trum. In micelles containing chlorophyll there are significant temperature induced spectral changes. Heating and cooling results in an irreversible redistribution o f m onom eric and oligomeric forms o f chlorophyll. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 685—686 (1984); received February 17 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Micelles, Vesicles, Spectral Changes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0685_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0685_n 
 Volume    39 
4Author    D. Ámaso, H. Ornero, -. M. Éndez, Marí, Isabel Mínguez-MosqueraRequires cookie*
 Title    Properties of Chlorophyllase from Capsicum annuum L. Fruits  
 Abstract    The in vitro properties of semi-purified chlorophyllase (chlorophyll-chlorophyllido hy­ drolase, EC 3.1.1.14) from Capsicum annuum fruits have been studied. The enzym e showed an optimum of activity at pH 8.5 and 50 °C. Substrate specificity was studied for chlorophyll (Chi) a, Chi b, pheophytin (Phe) a and Phe b, with K m values of 10.70, 4.04, 2.67 and 6.37 ^im respectively. Substrate inhibition was found for Phe b at concentrations higher than 5 ^m. Chlorophyllase action on Chi a' and Chi b' was also studied but no hydrolysis was observed, suggesting that the mechanism of action depends on the configuration at C-132 in the chloro­ phyll molecule, with the enzyme acting only on compounds with R132 stereochemistry. The effect of various metals (Mg2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Co , Fe2+ and Fe3+) was also investigated, and a general inhibitory effect was found, this being more marked for Hg2+ and Fe2+. Func­ tional groups such as -SH and -S-S-seem ed to participate in the formation o f the enzyme-substrate complex. Chelating ion and the carbonyl group at C3 appeared to be important in substrate recognition by the enzyme. The method for measuring Chlase activity, including HPLC separation of substrate and product, has been optimized. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 1015—1021 (2001); received June 27/August 6 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Chlorophyllase, Capsicum annuum 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-1015.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-1015 
 Volume    56 
5Author    H. Heithier, H.-J Galla, H. MöhwaldRequires cookie*
 Title    Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic Studies of Chlorophyll Containing Monolayers and Vesicles. Part I: Mixed Monolayers of Pheophytin A and Lecithin  
 Abstract    Mixed monolayers of pheophytin a and a-L-dimyristoyl lecithin (DML) are investigated on the water surface. The studies gain their special value from the simultaneous measurement of surface pressure and fluorescence intensity as a function of the covered area per molecule. A phase separation in the liquid state of the monolayer is established. Phase 1 exists almost exclusively of pheophytin molecules. Phase 2 exists essentially of D M L domains solubilizing pheo­ phytin in a concentration of 15 mol%. During the D M L main transition the pheophytin solubility decreases to about 2 mol%, the excess pheophytin being precipitated within the surface layer. During the pheophytin main transition an ordered structure below the surface layer is formed. A stabilizing interaction between the pheophytin domains and their environment is observed and discussed. A sharp fluorescence change at a pressure below 0.5 dyn/cm indicates another phase transition. It very probably involves an unwrapping of pheophytin from water molecules. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 382 (1978); received March 15/April 3 1978 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Monolayers, Chlorophyll, Energy Transfer, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Phase Transitions 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0382.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0382 
 Volume    33 
6Author    LudwigJ M Becker, Hans-Ulrich MeischRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Vanadate and Iron Stress on the Pigment Composition of Chlorella fusca  
 Abstract    The pigment composition o f Chlorella fusca has been investigated in the absence and in presence of vanadate and during iron stress. 1. Fe-deficiency generally decreases algal pigment content without change of the ratio chloro­ phyll a/b. 2. A twofold vanadate induced increase o f the chlorophylls is accompanied by a similar enhancement o f several xanthophylls, while lutein remains unaffected. 3. Vanadate stimulates the formation o f ^-carotene up to 5 fold, the effect being less obvious during iron stress. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 207 (1981); received November 171980 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Carotenoids, Chlorella fusca, Chlorophylls, Iron Stress, Vanadate 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0207.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0207 
 Volume    36 
7Author    Seym Our, Steven Brody, R. Ichard, P. F. GregoryRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on the Absorption Spectrum and Fluorescence Life Time of Chloroplasts  
 Abstract    Subjecting pea chloroplasts to hydrogen ion gradients results in small but significant changes in the absorption and circular dichroic spectra. The relative intensities o f the fast and slow fluorescence decays are modified by the hydrogen ion concentration. The life time of the slow components is only slightly altered. At pH 11 the circular dichroic peak at 690 nm, assigned to Photosystem I chlorophyll-protein complex, is clearly resolved. Also, there is a splitting o f the peak at 6 5 0 -6 4 0 nm, attributed to Photosystem II chlorophyll-protein. At pH 3.9 splitting o f the 6 5 0 -6 4 0 nm peak is observed. There is also a positive component at 705 nm which may be associated with an aggregated form of chlorophyll or pheophytin. The changes in absorption spectra are determined by measuring the difference in spectra between identical chloroplasts suspensions one at pH 7.6 and the other at alkaline or acidic pH. At pH 2 and pH 3.7 there are time dependent increases in absorbance at 430, 445, 520, 538, 670 nm, and a decrease in absorbance at 606 nm. After a delay o f 11 min at pH 2, there is also an increase in absorbance at 700 nm. The latter is interpreted as possible formation o f aggregated pheophytin. At pH 11.0 there are time dependent increases in absorbance at 638, 454 and 440 nm, and decreases in absorbance at 675, 660, 508 and 472 nm. The changes in absorbance of the pigment around 520 nm (associated with an electrochromic effect) is interpreted as resulting from a leakage o f hydrogen ion across the thylakoid membrane. The spectral changes that occur during the first 9 min are reversible. After the chloroplasts have incubated for more than 15 min most of the spectral changes are not reversible. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 638 (1981); received March 13 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll, Chloroplasts, Fluorescence Life Time, Circular Dichroism 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0638.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0638 
 Volume    36 
8Author    SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Absorption and Picosecond Fluorescence Characteristics o f Chlorophyll Vesicles as a Function o f Temperature  
 Abstract    With chlorophyll a-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-liposomes, the absorption increases at 706 and 450 nm, and decreases at 660 and 420 nm, as the temperature is lowered. As the temperature is increased opposite changes are observed. A lipid phase change occurs at 34°. The pigment to lipid ratio is 1 to 5 in the liposome. With chlorophyll a-soy bean lecithin-liposomes the absorption increases at 706, 680 and 440 nm, and decreases at 650 and 430 nm, as the temperature is lowered. As the temperature is increased, opposite changes are observed. A lipid phase change occurs at 26-27 °C. The pigment to lipid ratio is 1 to 13. The spectral change at 706 nm is identified with aggregated chlorophyll. The concentration o f chlorophyll aggregate increases as the temperature is lowered, and decreases as the temperature is raised. Fluorescence decay from chlorophyll a-soy bean lecithin-liposomes is biphasic. The lifetimes o f freshly prepared liposomes are 121 ± 4 ps and 1400 + 200 ps. The relative contribution o f the fast and slow fluorescence components are modified by temperature. Heating results in an increase in both lifetimes, and an increase in fluorescence from the long lived component. These changes are interpreted as resulting from a decrease in energy transfer and concentration quenching. The origin o f the biphasic fluorescence and spectral transformations in liposomes, and the possible re­ lation between in vitro and in vivo picosecond fluorescence is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 260—267 (1982); received October 161981 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Liposome, Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis, Fluorescence Lifetime, Lipid Phase Change 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0260.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0260 
 Volume    37 
9Author    K.H G RuRequires cookie*
 Title    Herbicides which Inhibit Electron Transport or Produce Chlorosis and Their Effect on Chloroplast Development in Radish Seedlings. III. Plastid Pigment and Quinone Composition  
 Abstract    The effect o f DC M U , bentazon, amitrole and SA N 6706 on the form ation o f chloroplast pig­ ments and quinones was investigated using plants that were grown in total darkness or continuous white, red or far-red light. All herbicides assayed affected the formation o f chlorophylls, carotenoids and quinones but DC M U had only minor effects. Like for chlorophylls and carotenoids the form ation o f quinones was most suppressed in plants grown in the presence o f the herbicide in continuous white or red light, but the effect on the formation o f quinones was much lower as com pared to the pigments. The observation that the biosynthesis o f quinones is still m aintained in SA N 6706 treated bleach­ ed plastids which are lacking chlorophylls and carotenoids indicates that quinones are synthesized at the plastitd envelope and stored in the osm iophilic plastoglobuli. Amitrole and SA N 6706 induced a strong chlorosis. It was o f particular interest that chlorosis was also induced by the photosystem II inhibitor bentazon. D C M U was not effective. The inhibi­ tor concentration for 50% inhibition in the chlorophyll and carotenoid content was 5 x l 0 ~6 M for SAN 6706,3 x 10-4 M for am itrole and 10~3 M for bentazon. As already reported by others SA N 6706 treated plants accum ulated phytoene in large amounts. The highest phytoene content was observed in plants that were grown in the dark. A m itrole treat­ ed plants accumulated lycopene. But in addition other carotenoid precursors like phytoene and phjHofluene were also accum ulated. In contrast to phytoene lycopene was only accum ulated in plants that were grown in the light. Particularly for SA N 6706 and amitrole the expression o f the bleaching effect was depending on the light intensity and light quality that was used during plant growth. T he herbicide effect ewas predominantly expressed at higher light intensities and after irradiation with red light. The o b ­ servation that the induction o f chlorosis is very sensitive to red light as com pared to w hite or blue light is suggesting that phytochrom e is involved in the developm ent o f the herbicide toxicity. It also supports that in SA N treated plants chlorophylls are photodecom posed directly by light be­ cause o f the lack o f photoprotecting carotenoids but m ainly /?-carotene in these plastids. Further support for this was given by the demonstration that SA N treated plants w hich were grown at very low light intensities turned green and were photosynthetically active. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 642 (1982); received April 5 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Bleaching Herbicides, Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, Lycopene, Photosystem II H erbicides 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0642.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0642 
 Volume    37 
10Author    Jürgen Feierabend, TheresiaW. Inkelhüsener, Petra Kemmerich, Ulrike SchulzRequires cookie*
 Title    Mechanism of Bleaching in Leaves Treated with Chlorosis-Inducing Herbicides  
 Abstract    Bleaching o f chlorophyll was studied in the leaves of rye seedlings (Secale cereale L.) treated with four chlorosis-inducing herbicides of different potency (weak photodestructions, group 1: aminotriazole, haloxidine; strong photodestructions, group 2: San 6706, difunone). Chlorophyll deficiency and particularly the inactivation of a chloroplast marker enzyme, NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase, that occurred in the presence o f group 2 herbicides were stronger in red, than in blue, light. When grown in white light o f low intensity (10 lx) herbicide-treated leaves contained chloro­ phyll, 70 S ribosomes and unimpaired activities o f NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-P de­ hydrogenase. At 10 lx only the leaves treated with SAN 6706 and difunone were strongly carotenoid-deficient but not those treated with group 1 herbicides. After all herbicide treatments 10 lx-grown leaf tissue was, however, not capable o f photosynthetic 0 2-evolution indicating some disorder of photosynthetic electron transport. Leaf segments grown at 10 lx were exposed to a high light intensity o f 30000 lx at either 0 ° C or 30 °C. In treatments with group 1 herbicides chlorophyll accumulation was stopped in bright light at 30 °C but breakdown was not apparent. Only at 0 °C and in the presence of high, growth-reducing, herbicide concentrations chlorophyll was slightly degraded. The RNAs o f the 70S ribosomes were, however, clearly destroyed at 30000 lx and 30 °C in aminotriazole-treated leaves. In leaves treated with group 2 herbicides chlorophyll was rapidly degraded at 30000 lx both at 0 ° C and 30 °C, however, only in the presence of 0 2, indicating a true photooxidative and mainly photochemical nature o f the reactions involved. This chlorophyll breakdown was accompanied by the photodestruction of 70S ribosomes and the inactivation of NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase. In treatments with group 1 herbicides photoinactivation o f the latter enzyme did not occur, although it was clearly localized in the bleached plastids, as demonstrated by gradient separation o f organelles. In the presence of group 2 herbicides the chlorosis was originating from a direct photo­ oxidation of chlorophyll, accompanied by a massive destruction o f other plastid constituents and functions. In treatments with group 1 herbicides photodestructions appeared to be much weaker and insufficient to affect chlorophyll directly. Mediated through some photodestructive inter­ ference with obviously more sensitive plastid components, such as their ribosomes, further chlorophyll accumulation was, however, prevented. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 898 (1982); received July 7 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Bleaching Herbicides, Carotenoids, Chlorophyll, Photooxidation, Plastid rRNA 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0898.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0898 
 Volume    37 
11Author    HainfriedE A Schenk, M. Argarete, Neu-M ÜllerRequires cookie*
 Title    Der Einfluß von Cycloheximid und Chloramphenicol auf die Biosynthese der Photosynthese-Pigmente in Cyanophora paradoxa Korsch I. Photosynthetische Sauerstoffproduktion Photosynthetic O xygen Evolution  
 Abstract    The Influence o f C yclohexim ide and C hloram phenicol on the B iosynthesis o f the Photosynthetic P igm ents in Cyanophora paradoxa I. It is not clear whether an endocytobiont is able to develop during a long evolution tim e only to an organelle like cell structure (defect m utant) with a high degree of m etabolic dependency or also to a perfect cell organelle with genetical dependency to the host nucleus (intercom partm ental translocation of proteins an d /o r gene transfer) in the sense of the Serial Endocytobiosis Hypothesis (SEH). Cyanocyta korschokoffiana, the endocyanelle of C. paradoxa, seems to be a very suitable object to answer this question. Therefore we have studied the influence o f the translation inhibitors cycloheximide (CHI) and chloramphenicol (CA) on the biosynthetic behaviour of this cyanobacterial endocytobiont regarding the photosynthetic oxygen during 20 h developing and incubation time. After dilution with fresh culture m edium the oxygen evolution of the control culture remains nearly constant, if it is related to the phycocyanin content, whereas it increases slowly to a constant level relating to the chlorophyll content (nearly 140-150% o f the starting activity). CHI and CA show a rapid effect on the oxygen evolution. At the first 8 -10 h the oxygen evolution of cultures treated with CA are hardly dim inished and rem ain m ore or less constant with regard to the starting activity, but that of cultures treated with CHI decreases strongly. After 24 h the CHI treated flagellate is photosynthetically inactive and far-reaching destroyed (microscopic observations), indicating that CHI has beside the inhibition effects on protein synthesis also secondary effects on the stability o f m em branes o f C. paradoxa. Der apochlorotische Flagellat Cyanophora 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 978—983 (1983); received July 19 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Cyanophora paradoxa, Photosynthetic Activity, Oxygen Evolution, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0978.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0978 
 Volume    38 
12Author    Ii Carotinoide, H. Ainfried, E. A. Schenk, H. Arald, S. TranskyRequires cookie*
 Title    Der Einfluß von Cycloheximid und Chloramphenicol auf die Biosynthese der Photosynthese-Pigmente in Cyanophora paradoxa Korsch  
 Abstract    The Influence o f Cyclohexim ide and C hloram phenicol on the B iosynthesis o f the Photosynthetic Pigm ents in Cyanophora paradoxa. II. C arotenoids M argarete N eu-M üller, To prove the extent to which the endocyanelle o f C. paradoxa is autonom ous with respect to the biosynthesis o f its photosynthetic pigments, the degree, to w hich the translation inhibitors cyclohexim ide (CHI) and chloramphenicol (CA) influence the biosynthesis o f carotenoids, was 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 984—9 (1983); received July 19 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Cyanophora paradoxa, Biosynthesis, /?-Carotene, Zeaxanthin, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0984.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0984 
 Volume    38 
13Author    K.H G Rum BachRequires cookie*
 Title    Distribution of Chlorophylls, Carotenoids and Quinones in Chloroplasts of Higher Plants  
 Abstract    Leaves, cotyledons, isolated chloroplasts and subplastid fractions (thylakoids and envelopes) o f radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Saxa) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. M atador) were assayed for their pigment and quinone content and com position. Virtually all the chlorophylls, carotenoids and quinones were contained in the thylakoids. Envelopes prepared by the method described contained very low amounts o f chlorophyll a and b, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, but no /7-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. Am ong the quinones trace am ounts o f plastoquinone and a-tocopherol but no plastohydroquinone, a-tocoquinone and phylloquinone were detected. Presented data may be taken as evidence that in vivo the chloroplast envelope is not a location site o f carotenoids and quinones as generally accepted. Possible im plications for the biosyntheses o f quinones and pigments are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 996—1002 (1983); received August 16 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, Chloroplasts, Envelopes, Quinones, Thylakoids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0996.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0996 
 Volume    38 
14Author    SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Flash Photolysis of Liposomes Containing Chlorophyll and Zeaxanthin, as a Function of Temperature (2 °—34 °C)  
 Abstract    The transfer o f triplet excitation from chlorophyll to zeaxanthin in lip osom es is a function o f temperature and pigment concentration. At 525 nm both chlorophyll and zeaxanthin triplet states are observed. The result is a biphasic increase in absorption. The rise time o f absorption by the chlorophyll triplet is much faster, than by the zeaxanthin triplet. With increasing temperature the contribution o f absorption by zea­ xanthin (relative to that o f chlorophyll) at 525 nm increases, and its rise tim e gets faster. At high ratios o f zeaxanthin to chlorophyll, temperature has less effect on both the rise tim e and absorption by the zeaxanthin triplet state. The chlorophyll triplet is measured at 780 nm. It decays faster with increasing temperature and or increasing ratio o f zeaxanthin to chlorophyll. The results are interpreted in terms of: increasing fluidity o f the lipid lip osom e with tem per­ ature, formation o f zeaxanthin-chlorophyll com plexes at high ratios o f zeaxanthin and chloro­ phyll, presence o f different lipid phases in the lip osom e bilayer. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 1108—1111 (1984); received June 15 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, Liposomes, Triplet States, Excitation Energy Transfer 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-1108.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-1108 
 Volume    39 
15Author    Robert Carpentier, RogerM. Leblanc, Guy BellemareRequires cookie*
 Title    Chlorophyll Photobleaching in Pigment-Protein Complexes  
 Abstract    Pigment photobleaching was performed in thylakoid membranes of Hordeum vulgare (wild type, mutant Chlorina f2, Norfluranzon treated seedlings) and in pigment-protein complexes (CP-I and LHCP) isolated from H. vulgare and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Multiphasic kinetics were obtained in all of the above cases. Energy transfer towards pigments absorbing at longer wavelength is postulated as a general protection mechanism against photobleaching. This mechanism explains a substantial bleaching of carotenoids and a faster bleaching of chlorophyll aggregates, absorbing at long wavelength. These conclusions were valid for isolated complexes as well as for thylakoid membranes, although membranes were less sensitive to light. In tro d u ctio n 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 284 (1986); received September 23 1985 
  Published    1986 
  Keywords    Pigment-Protein Complexes, Photobleaching, Thylakoid Membranes Energy Transfer, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/41/ZNC-1986-41c-0284.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1986-41c-0284 
 Volume    41 
16Author    S. S. BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    The Position of Carotene in the D-l/D-2 Sub-Core Complex of Photosystem II  
 Abstract    When the sub-core complex of photosystem II, D1/D2, is irradiated at 436 or 415 nm (absorp-tion by chlorophyll and pheophytin and ß-carotene) or 540 nm (absorption primarily by pheophy-tin), the low temperature fluorescence spectrum has two maxima, at 685 and 674 nm. This shows the existence of at least two different fluorescent forms of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and perhaps pheophytin a). When carotene is irradiated at 485 nm (absorption primarily by ß-carotene), only fluorescence at 685 nm is observed: this indicates that carotene is transferring energy to only the long-wavelength form of chlorophyll in the D1/D2 sub-core complex. The band of carotene (at 485 nm) does not appear in the fluorescence excitation spectrum, measured at 674 nm. The position of the carotene molecule relative to each of the fluorescent forms of chlorophyll was determined from the excitation spectra of each of the fluorescence bands. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 226—230 (1988); received August 21. 1987/January 11 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Photosynthesis Photosystem II, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence, Carotenoids, Energy Transfer 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0226.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0226 
 Volume    43 
17Author    SeymourSteven BrodyRequires cookie*
 Title    Rebinding of the 33 kDalton Polypeptide of Photosystem II to the D-l/D-2 Sub-Core Complex  
 Abstract    Specific and stoichiometric binding is shown between the D-l/D-2 sub-core complex and the 33 kDa polypeptide of photosystem II. Fluorescence from chlorophyll is used as an endogenous probe. When binding occurs there is an increase in fluorescence yield, as well as changes in both the fluorescence spectrum and excitation spectrum. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 727—730 (1988); received January 28/May 31 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Photosynthesis, Reaction Center, Photosystem II, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0727.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0727 
 Volume    43 
18Author    MarcelA K Jansen3, Shmuel Malkinb, Marvin EdelmanaRequires cookie*
 Title    Differential Sensitivity of 32 kDa-D 1 Protein Degradation and Photosynthetic Electron Flow to Photosystem II Herbicides  
 Abstract    Degradation of the 32 kDa-D 1 protein, a photosystem II reaction centre component, was studied as a function of linear electron flow in visible light in the presence of various photosys­ tem II herbicides. Under these conditions, herbicide specific effects on protein degradation were clearly evident. 32 kDa-D 1 protein degradation and electron flow between Q a and Q b proved to be only partially correlated. We conclude that inhibition of protein degradation by PS II herbicides in visible light is not simply correlated to displacement of Q b. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45c, 408—411 (1990); received December 12 1989 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Diuron, Bromoxynil, Dinoseb, Oxygen, Evolution, Chlorophyll, Fluorescence 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/45/ZNC-1990-45c-0408.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1990-45c-0408 
 Volume    45 
19Author    P. He, A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Changes of the Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Leaves of Aleurites montana as a Consequence of Growth under 700 ppm C 0 2 in the Atmosphere  
 Abstract    Leaf lipids of Aleurites plants that were cultivated for 5 months in air containing 700 ppm C 0 2, were compared to those of control plants cultivated at 350 ppm C 0 2. The content of ether soluble lipids referred to dry matter is the same in C 0 2-and control plants. The com ­ parison of lipids analyzed as the pigments chlorophyll and carotenoids, phospholipids and glycolipids shows that the ratio of phospholipids and glycolipids is slightly shifted in favor of phospholipids in C 0 2-plants. Thus, within the group o f phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol occur in higher concentrations in CÖ2-plants. Although the differences in the lipid content appear moderate in C 0 2-and control plants, it is the saturation degree of fatty acids that differs substantially. The fatty acids of C 0 2-plants contain according to the higher phospholipid content approx. 5% more saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid is three-fold increased. W hereas in the phospholipid fraction saturated fatty acids comprise one half of all fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids make up for 80 to 90% in the glycolipid fraction. In C 0 2-plants not only in the phospholipid fraction but also in the glycolipid fraction saturated fatty acids occur in a higher portion. This means that not only in the cell membrane of C 0 2-plants but also in the thylakoid membrane the fluidity is decreased. Also in the wax-fraction long-chained carbonic acids with 2 0 -2 6 carbon atoms occur. A s the portion of these carbonic acids is twice as high in C 0 2-plants, it is concluded that a stronger formation of the wax layers exists in C 0 2-plants. By means of Western blotting and by the use of lipid and carotenoid antisera the binding of lipids onto proteins of photosystem II and photosystem I was analyzed. It is seen that besides the major amount of lipids which build up the thylakoid membrane, som e lipids are also bound to membrane peptides. Whereas monogalactolipid is bound to the LHCP-com-plex peptides, to the O E C r peptide and the 43 and 47 kDa chlorophyll binding peptides, the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiglyceride and phosphatidylglycerol and digalactolipid are bound to the core peptides of PS II and PS I. ß-carotene and the xanthophylls were found to be bound to the core peptides and ß-carotene and violaxanthin were also bound to the light-harvesting pigment complex. A bbreviations: PS I, photosystem I; PS II, photosystem II; LHCP, light harvesting pigment protein complex; M GDG, monogalactosyldiglyceride; D G D G , digalacto-syldiglyceride; O E Q , oxygen evolution complex peptide (33 kDa); PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Tris-HCl, tris[hydroxymethyl]amino-methane; SDS, so­ dium dodecylsulfate, EDTA, ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid; DTT, dithiothreitol; BPB, bromophenol blue (3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromphenolsulfone phthalein); Tricine, (N-tris[Hydroxymethyl]methylglycine). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 833—8 (1996); received October 2/October 29 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Leaf Lipids, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0833.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0833 
 Volume    51 
20Author    Siegrid Schoch3, M. Onica IhlRequires cookie*
 Title    Substrate Specificity of Chlorophyllase from Different Plants  
 Abstract    The activity of chlorophyllase (chlorophyll-chlorophyllido-hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14) ex­ tracted from six different species was com pared with enzyme extracted from leaves of Tree of Heaven. The chlorophyllase activity from Swiss chard was similar to the Tree of Heaven enzyme, all the others were less active or inactive. We tested the substrate specificity with bacteriochlorophyll a, chlorophylls a and b. pheophytins a and b and also the synthetic pig­ ments Zn pheophytins a and b and Zn pyropheophytin a. The natural pigments were the best substrates, but the Zn derivatives were also hydrolysed, except Zn pyropheophytin a which was accepted only by the enzyme extracted from the leaves of Tree of Heaven. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 21 (1998); received Septem ber 19/October 11 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Chlorophyll, Chlorophyllase, Substrates Specificity, Vegetables, Zn pheophytin 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0021 
 Volume    53 
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