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1Author    Franz-C CzyganRequires cookie*
 Title    " Synthetical" Aiptasia mutabilis R A P P (Coelenterata)  
 Abstract    After being cultivated in the dark for some months and after being fed with food free of carotenoids during the time Aiptasia mutabilis (Coelenterata) loses its symbiontic algae (rich in brown fucoxanthin) and becomes transparent white. This disarranged symbiosis may be regenerated under light cultivation by adding different species of Chlorophyceae (Chlorella, Dunaliella) and Chrysophyceae (Ochromonas, Cyclotella), but not of Cyanophyceae (A nabaena, Nostoc, Oscillatoria, An a cystis). — This changeable life system be­ tween coelenterata and algae may be a good example for further studies of the endosymbiosis problem. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 31c, 215 [1976]; eingegangen am 15. Dezember 1975) 
  Published    1976 
  Keywords    Aiptasia, Coelenterata, Symbiosis, Chlorella, Carotenoids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/31/ZNC-1976-31c-0215_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1976-31c-0215_n 
 Volume    31 
2Author    Ahlert Schmidt, Ingrid ErdleRequires cookie*
 Title    A Cysteine Desulfhydrase Specific for D-Cysteine from the Green Alga Chlorella fusca  
 Abstract    A cysteine desulfhydrase was purified 110-fold from the green alga Chlorella using conven­ tional techniques. The isolated cysteine desulfhydrase was specific for D-cysteine having no activity towards L-cysteine. D -and L-cysteine desulfhydrase activities can be separated using DEAE-cellulose chromatography techniques. The isoelectric point o f this enzyme was deter­ mined to be around a pH o f 4.5 using a chromatofocussing column. The pH -optim um for the D-cysteine desulfhydrase was found to be in the range o f 8.5 to 9 and the apparent for D-cysteine was determined to 0.16 m M . The enzyme was active without addition o f metal ions and EDTA or citric acid did not inhibit this activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 428 (1983); received February 17 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Chlorella, D-Cysteine, Cysteine Desulfhydrase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0428.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0428 
 Volume    38 
3Author    N. G. RotjohannRequires cookie*
 Title    Regulation of Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase Activity of Chlorella by Mole Mass Change  
 Abstract    Fast protein liquid chromatography on Superose 6 of partially purified FBPase II from Chlorella reveals a 1350 kDa-form at pH 6.0 and a 67 kDa-form at pH 8.5. Treatment o f the large enzyme form with 5mM concentrations of Mg2+, F1,6P2, DTT or ATP leads to dissoci­ ation into smaller ones of 2 1 5 -4 7 0 kDa. Aggregation/dissoziation is a reversible process, as has been shown for the effect of F1,6P2 and of pH, by rechromatography. The change in m ole mass results in alterations of the activitiy and of the kinetic properties of the enzyme forms, obtained. Dissociation results in a 4 -6 fold increase in activity, as can be shown for F l,6 P2-treated samples. Halfsaturation constants, as well as the degree o f cooperativity of the 67-and the 1350-kDa form, are different for substrate affinity, activation by Mg2+ and DTT, and for inhibition by ATP. Both enzyme forms hydrolyse fructose 1,6 bisphosphate and seduheptulose 1,7 bis­ phosphate better than other phosphorylated compounds. The ratio o f F1,6P2-to SDP-cleav-age is 100:58 for the small enzym e form and 100: 84 for the large one. Activation of FBPase II in the light and inactivation in the dark is discussed on the basis of different oligomeric forms of the enzyme, generated by changes in the concentration of intermediates and effectors in the chloroplast stroma, leading to dissociation or aggregation. The conclusion is drawn that oligomerization of key enzymes, resulting in enzyme forms with different activities and different kinetic properties, might provide an effective mechanism for enzyme regulation in vivo. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 639 (1996); received September 14 1995/March 7 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Chlorella, Fructosebisphosphatase, Oligomerization Activation Kinetic Properties 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0639.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0639 
 Volume    51 
4Author    G. Harnischfeger, H. JarryRequires cookie*
 Title    Changes in the Fluorescence Emission Spectrum of Chlorella emersonii Induced by Cold Treatment; a Possible Regulative Feature of Energy Uptake  
 Abstract    Algae, when slowly cooled down to around -5 °C, undergo a change in the fluorescence emissi­ on spectrum subsequently taken at liqu. nitrogen temperature. This change resembles the mag­ nesium effect described by Murata [BBA 189,171 — 181, (1969)] for isolated chloroplasts. Evidence is shown, that both effects are indeed analogous. Cooling the organisms seems to in­ crease the permeability of the thylakoids for cations and, thus, a depletion with concomitant changes in membrane structure. The system serves as a model for the probable in vivo control o f pigment interaction through alteration o f membrane properties. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 448 (1982); received January 19 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Fluorescence Emission Spectrum, Chlorella, Energy Uptake 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0448.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0448 
 Volume    37 
5Author    Margarete Hoffmans-Hohn, W. Olfgang, M. Artin, Klaus BrinkmRequires cookie*
 Title    Multiple Periodicities in the Circadian System of Unicellular Algae  
 Abstract    Three periodicities in the circadian range are observed when m easuring circadian parameters of unicellular organisms in long running experim ents (m ore than 15 days). This is dem onstrated for different organisms (Chlamydomonas, Euglena, C hlorella) and different parameters (auto­ kinesis, extracellular pH, C 0 2-and 0 2-partial pressure). H aving excluded analytical and experimental artefacts {i.e. filter leakage and subpopulation effects), the m ultiple periodicities have to be interpreted in a physiological m odel. The three p eriod icities always exhibit two common features: The locations o f the side peaks are sym m etrical to the m iddle peak and their energy contribution is always the same. W e therefore favour the m odel o f m ultiplicative coupling between the circadian oscillator and a low frequency oscillator m odulating the am plitude o f the circadian rhythm. Since the low frequency rhythm is not correlated to any exogenously running periodicity o f the experim ental surroundings, it is considered as generated by an endogenous oscillator. This shows the existence o f different biological long tim e oscillators in one single cell and contradicts the so-called m aster-clock hypothesis stating that one cell has only one clock related oscillator. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 791—8 (1984); received D ecem ber 5 1983/M arch 17 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Circadian Rhythm, pH-Rhythm, Chlamydomonas, Euglena, Chlorella 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0791.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0791 
 Volume    39 
6Author    Ahlert SchmidtRequires cookie*
 Title    Occurrence of Mercaptopyruvate Sulfotransferase Activity in Photosynthetic Organisms  
 Abstract    Mercaptopyruvate sulfotransferase activity catalyzes the formation o f pyruvate from mercapto­ pyruvate in the presence o f suitable reagents as acceptor. It was detected in Lemna minor, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea, Chlorella fusca, Synechococcus 6301, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Best activity was detected using dithioerythritol as a thiol reagent; good activity was obtained using mercaptoethanol, glutathione, mercaptopyruvate or sulfite as acceptor. The pH-optimum for the Chlorella mercaptopyruvate sulfotransferase was found around 9; the apparent Km for mercaptopyruvate was determined to 2 m M and for dithioerythritol for 5 m M using crude Chlorella extracts. The role of this enzyme is discussed in relation to cysteine catabolism by photosynthetic organisms. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 916—921 (1984); received April 6 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Pyruvate, Mercaptopyruvate, Lemna, Spinacia, Pisum, Chlorella, Synechococcus, Rhodopseudomonas 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0916.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0916 
 Volume    39 
7Author    Y. Shiraiwa, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Oxygen Gas Exchange in High-and LOW-C0 2 Cells of Chlorella vulgaris  
 Abstract    Oxygen gas exchange was monitored in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris 211 — 11 h by means of a mass spectrometer equipped with a special membrane gas-inlet-system and a photosynthetic reaction vessel. C02-dependent I8 02-uptake as well as ,6 02-evolution were ana-lyzed in both High-and Low-C02 cells. In High-C02 cells, the 18 Oruptake in the light (UL) decreased by 65% upon addition of 3 mM NaHC03, while l6 02-evolution (E) was increased approx. 1.8 times by the same treatment. 18 02-uptake in the dark (UD) was not affected by the addition of external inorganic carbon (Ci). The addition of 3.3 mM NaHCO, also affected UL and E in Low C02-cells, however, to a minor extent. UL under C02-saturating conditions was light intensity-independent up to 2 klux and 1.2 klux in High-and Low-C02 cells, respectively. Above these light intensities UL increased approx. 4-fold in High-and approx. 6-fold in Low-C02 cells. Under C02-limiting conditions, however, UL increased in High-CO: cells even under very low light intensities, showing that photorespiratory oxygen uptake occurred even in the near vicinity of the light compensation point. Under C02-saturating and strong light conditions UL represented almost half of E in Low-C02 cells and about 30% of E in High-C02 cells. In Low-C02 cells addition of ethoxyzolamide (EZA), an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase, enhanced UL and suppressed E and NET under C02-limiting conditions, whereas the compound had only a minor effect on High-C02 cells. DCMU (3 |XM) strongly inhibited E and UL under C02-saturating conditions, with the remain-ing UL being smaller than UD. KCN (1 mM) and SHAM (1.5 mM) added to DCMU-treated Low-C02 cells suppressed UL by approx. 50%. The resulting value corresponded to half of UD. KCN also inhibited E under CÓ2-saturating conditions, with UL being strongly enhanced showing a maximal uptake at 0.4 mM KCN. Under these conditions NET was nearly zero. The effect seems to be due to an inhibition of RubisCO and an enhancement of Mehler reactions. At 0.7 mM KCN, DCMU entirely inhibited UL, but oxygen uptake appeared increased after turning the light off. This uptake corresponded to approx. 60% of UD. Whereas KCN and SHAM inhibited approx. 70% of UD, only 16% of UL was suppressed. These results suggest that the contribution of mitochondrial respiration to UL was négligeable, since UL seemed to be suppressed in the light under C02-saturated conditions. Iodoacetamide, which is an inhibitor of the Calvin cycle and thereby diverts carbon into the respiratory pathway, inhibited E and NET under C02-saturating conditions, but did not affect UL. This result also shows that UL is not due to mitochondrial respiration. A hydroxylamine derivative [20, 21] which changes the ratio of the RuBP carboxyla-tion to oxygenation activity in tobacco leaves did not affect this ratio in Chlorella. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 709—716 (1988); received May 24 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Chlorella, Oxygen Gas Exchange, Carbonic Anhydrase, Mass Spectrometry 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0709.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0709 
 Volume    43 
8Author    Alexander Pazur, Hugo ScheerRequires cookie*
 Title    The Growth of Freshwater Green Algae in Weak Alternating Magnetic Fields of 7.8 Hz Frequency  
 Abstract    Liquid cultures o f Chlorella kessleri, Scenedesmus armatus and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been grown phototrophically in weak (0 .2 -2 G) alternating (7.8 Hz) magnetic fields. The data indicate, that the rate o f cell division is larger at 0.2 than at 2 G, viz. that the higher fields have inhibitory effects on cell division and that there is possibly an optimum at = 1 G. N o reli­ able effect is found on the pigment contents. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 690—6 (1992); received April 13/July 7 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Earth M agnetic Field, Schumann Resonance, Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0690.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0690 
 Volume    47 
9Author    G. Kliinger, E. BrodaRequires cookie*
 Title    Der Einfluß zweiwertiger Fremdkationen auf die Aufnahme von Zink durch Chlorella Influence o f Twovalent Foreign Cations on the Uptake of Zinc by Chlorella  
 Abstract    The influence o f 10-4 divalent cations on the uptake o f labelled Zn in the concentration range 10~5 to 5 x 10-5 M into the interior o f Chlorella fusca at 30 °C was measured during 75 min. The Zn adsorbed on the surface or contained in the free space was rem oved by washing with EDTA. Corrections were applied for the loss in concentration due to surface adsorption, etc. The results were consistent with com petitive inhibition o f Zn uptake by the foreign ions. N o allosteric inh ib i­ tion was found. From the Lineweaver-Burk diagram, for uninhibited Zn, Ä^M was found as 7 x 1 0 "® M and vmax as 8.3 x lO -9 mol • m in_1-g -1 algae. The inhibitor constants were: Mg 1.3 xlO -5, Ca 4.3 x 10~5, Co 4.3 x 10-5, N i 4.3 x 10~5, Cd 1.3 x 10~5 and Pb 9.4 x 10~7 m. The values given for K m and the inhibitor constant refer to the velocities o f uptake after 45 min. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 751—756 (1979); eingegangen am 15. Juni 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Chlorella, Green A lgae, Zn M etabolism, Ion Transport, Ion Com petition 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0751.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0751 
 Volume    34 
10Author    Aloysius Wild, Barbara UrschelRequires cookie*
 Title    Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes of Chlorella fusca  
 Abstract    Chlorophyll-protein complexes from thylakoids of the normal type and two mutants o f Chlorella fusca were separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The properties o f the chlorophyll-protein complexes o f the three strains of Chlorella were compared. Standard curves were set up for the characterization of the chlorophyll-proteins. In every electrophoretic separation of chlorophyll-protein complexes, a certain am ount o f pigm ent is separated from the protein. We tried to keep that am ount as low as possible by mild solubiliza­ tion and by working in low tem perature. U nder these conditions, we obtained several new chlorophyll-proteins in addition to the P-700-chlorophyll a-protein (CP I) and the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein (CP II). Thus, a small band (CP I a) was located between the top of the gel and the CP I after elec­ trophoresis. A lthough it shows spectral qualities sim ilar to CP I, it possesses a much lower chloro­ phyll a/chlorophyll b ratio. It may be an aggregate of photosystem I and light-harvesting chloro­ phyll. We found and analyzed three other chlorophyll-proteins with electrophoretic m obilities inter­ mediate between that o f the P-700-chlorophyll a-protein and that of the light-harvesting chloro­ phyll a/b-protein complex. Two o f these chlorophyll-proteins, the LHCP1 and the L H C P2, have a low chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio and spectral properties similar to that o f the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein (LH CP3). They obviously represent dimers or oligomers o f the latter com ­ plex. A third, new complex (CPa) m igrated between LHCP3 and its dimer. W ith the chlorophyll b deficient m utant G 36 of Chlorella fusca, this complex could be obtained in high purity and great enrichment (15% of total chlorophyll). It could be proved that this complex only contains chloro­ phyll a. Its red absorption m axim um is at 671 nm. Some indirect evidences suggest that it may be a good candidate for the PS II reaction center complex. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 627—6 (1980); received March 19 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Chlorella, C hlorophyll-Protein Complexes, Polyacrylam ide-Gel Electrophoresis, Standard Curves for Characterization o f Chlorophyll Proteins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0627.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0627 
 Volume    35 
11Author    Yoshihiro Shiraiwa, GeorgH. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of the C 0 2-Concentration during Growth on the Oxygen Evolution Pattern under Flash Light in Chlorella  
 Abstract    Photosynthetic 0 2-evolution patterns were determined in cells of Chlorella vulgaris 211 — 11 h, grown under air enriched with 2% C 0 2 (High C 0 2-cells) and under ordinary air (Low C 0 2-cells). Oxygen evolution in these algae was measured as consequence of short saturating light flashes with the three electrode system according to Schmid and Thibault, Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 414 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 269 (1986); received November 25 1985 
  Published    1986 
  Keywords    Oxygen Evolution, Flash Sequence, S-States, Carbonic Anhydrase, C 0 2-Effect, Chlorella 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/41/ZNC-1986-41c-0269.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1986-41c-0269 
 Volume    41 
12Author    K. Burda, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    On the Determination of the 5-State Distribution in the Kok Model  
 Abstract    We use the Markow chain theory to analyze the oscillation pattern of oxygen evolution during water oxidation in photosystem II under short saturating light flashes. We propose a method based on the standard least square deviation (test x 2) to determine the number of 5-states in the Kok model. As pointed out by Burda et al. (1995) this information is amongst others important for the interpretation of the role of calcium for oxygen evolution. A specific mathematical representation for a situation when the S4 state is longer living than generally assumed is introduced which requires an explicit extension of the Kok model to five states. The higher stability is modelled by introducing additional decay channels, e.g. a nonvanishing probability for the transition of S3 to the 5() state and a further transition probability for the transition from S3 to 5 4. Our analysis is extended to the case of damped oscillations of oxygen evolution caused, for example, by the lack of electron acceptor or the short life time of photosystem II particles. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 329—341 (1996); received O ctober 23/D ecem ber 5 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    0 2-Evolution, o-and ^-Analysis, Transition Probabilities, Cyanobacteria, Tobacco, Chlorella 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0329.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0329 
 Volume    51