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'Carotenoids' in keywords Facet   section ZfN Section C:Volume 032  [X]
Facet   Publication Year 1977  [X]
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1Author    Kai-Udo Sewe, Roland ReichRequires cookie*
 Title    The Effect of Molecular Polarization on the Electrochromism of Carotenoids * II. Lutein-Chlorophyll Complexes: The Origin of the Field-Indicating Absorption-Change at 520 nm in the Membranes of Photosynthesis  
 Abstract    Electrochromic spectra of monolayers of carotenoids (lutein and ß -carotene) in contact with monolayers of chlorophylls and of pheophytin a are measured in thin capacitors. A specific inter­ action of one of the OH-groups of lutein with the Mg-atom of chlorophyll is found. The formation of this oriented complex accounts for the fact that a part of the electrochromic absorption-change of lutein depends linearly on the electric field strength, whereas for lutein alone only a smaller, quadratic electrochromism is found. In the preparation with chlorophyll a, the maximum of this linear electrochromism is located at shorter wavelengths (512 nm) than in the preparation with chlorophyll b (517 nm). The permanent field that has been postulated in photosynthetic membranes (to explain the linear dependence of the field-indicating absorption-changes of the carotenoids) may also be at­ tributed to such a complex formation with chlorophylls. Especially, the field-indicating absorption-change at 520 nm can now be attributed mainly to a lutein-chlorophyll b complex. The absorption-change at 520 nm, calculated according to this model from the present experiments in vitro, is of the same order of magnitude as observed in vivo. Furthermore, this model agrees with the hitherto unexplained observation that in chlorophyll-b-lacking mutants the absorption-change at 520 nm is smaller than in normal plants, and the maximum is located at shorter wavelengths. Besites, it is concluded that lutein is mainly located in the regions of photosystem II. The contributions of the other carotenoids (especially of neoxanthin) to the spectrum of the field-indicating absorption-changes are also discussed. From the above model, some conclusions are drawn on the asymmetrical arrangement of the different pigments in the membrane of photosynthesis: The bulk chlorophyll molecules that serve as complex partners for the carotenoids should be located near to the inner surface of the thylakoid membrane, and the carotenoids attached to these chlorophylls should be located more to the out­ side. The phytol chain of a chlorophyll molecule should form an acute angle with the plane of the porphyrin ring. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 161—171 [1977]; received January 20 1977) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    Electrochromism, Carotenoids, Molecular Complexes, Biological Membranes, Photosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0161.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0161 
 Volume    32 
2Author    H. K. Lichtenthaler, H. K. KleudgenRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of the Herbicide San 6706 on Biosynthesis of Photosynthetic Pigments and Prenylquinones in Raphanus and in Hordeum Seedlings  
 Abstract    The pyridazinone herbicide San 6706 blocks chlorophyll and carotenoid formation simultaneously in a correlated way in both Raphanus and Hordeum seedlings. With decreasing carotenoid content the carotenoid precursor phytoene appears in San 6706-treated plants. The accumulation of the chloroplast prenylquinones (plastoquinone-9, a-tocopherol, <x-toco-quinone and vitamin Kj) is much less affected. This indicates that the biosynthesis of C20-and C45-prenyl chains (geranyl-geraniol, phytol and solanesol) which are incorporated in prenylquinones is not blocked by San 6706. It is assumed that the block of chlorophyll and carotenoid formation is due to one basic inhibi­ tion mechanism. The possibility that San 6706 may interfere with chloroplast ribosome formation, is discussed. 
  Reference    (Z. Naturforsch. 32c, 236 [1977]; received December 13 1976) 
  Published    1977 
  Keywords    Herbicide, Pyridazinone, Prenyl Biosynthesis, Carotenoids, Prenylquinones 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/32/ZNC-1977-32c-0236.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1977-32c-0236 
 Volume    32