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'Carbohydrates' in keywords Facet   section ZfN Section C  [X]
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1Author    BlahoslavM. Aršálek, Renata RojíčkováRequires cookie*
 Title    Stress Factors Enhancing Production of Algal Exudates: a Potential Self-Protective Mechanism?  
 Abstract    Algae are known to produce extracellular organic substances under optimum conditions and increase their production under stress. The changes in amount and composition of extra­ cellular carbohydrates and proteins of three green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella kessleri and Raphidocelis subcapitata (known as Selenastrum capricornutum) were studied after a 5-days' cultivation under the influence of different types o f stress factors (osm otic, organic, and heavy metal stressors). NaCl enhanced the quantity of carbohydrates more than proteins. A higher increase o f proteins than carbohydrates was observed after addition of 3,5-dichlorophenol, glyphosate and cadmium chloride to algal cultures. The production of dissolved organic matter differs from species to species, with the age of a culture and the type of stressor. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 646 (1996); received May 28/June 25. 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Algae, Extracellular Products, Proteins, Carbohydrates 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0646.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0646 
 Volume    51 
2Author    Malle Mandre, Jaan KlõšeikoRequires cookie*
 Title    Changing Carbohydrate Partitioning in 6-Year-Old Coniferous Trees after Prolonged Exposure to Cement Dust  
 Abstract    Two-year-old seedlings of Picea abies L., P. glauca L., P. mciriana L., Pinus sylvestris L. and Pseudotsuga menziesii L. were planted in a sample plot influenced by high concentrations of cement dust, and in an unpolluted (control) area in 1990. In 1994, the six-year-old trees were dug up in the pre-bud-break period. A comparative analysis of soluble sugars (glucose, fruc­ tose, sucrose, maltodextrines), starch and hemicelluloses contents was carried out and the changes in carbohydrate partitioning were estimated. A decrease in the total content of soluble sugars, mainly of glucose, fructose and maltodextrines, was observed in polluted trees, especially in roots, stems and buds, while the sucrose content increased in different organs. Fluctuations in glucose and fructose contents in roots were in good correlation with these sugars in needles and maltodextrines in stems and shoots. Changes in starch and hemicellu-lose partitioning between different organs of trees were modest and their directions were highly dependent on species. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 586—594 (1997); received March 20/June 6 1997 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Conifers, Dust Pollution, Carbohydrates, Partitioning 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0586.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0586 
 Volume    52 
3Author    H. Erm, Ann KrählingRequires cookie*
 Title    Discrimination of Two Fusogenic Properties of Aqueous Polyethylene Glycol Solutions  
 Abstract    Investigations on the dose response of cell fusion, induced by ionfree aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions, reveal distinct lowest fusogenic PEG concentrations for different permanently growing mammalian cell lines. Part o f the requisite PEG can be replaced by carbo­ hydrates, preserving the fusogenity o f the solutions. This discriminates two effects o f PEG solutions causing cell fusion: a) cell shrinkage, the required hyperosmolality o f the solutions may be provided by PEG or by carbohydrates, is supposed to cause intracellular processes necessary for consolidating polycaryons; b) membrane alterations, which can not be induced by carbo­ hydrates, enable intimate cell-cell contact via particle-free membrane areas. Depending on cell line salts can not only raise the osmolality o f PEG solutions but are able to co-operate with PEG in generating membrane alterations. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 593—596 (1981); received March 111981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Cell Fusion, Polyethylene Glycol, Fusogenic Properties, Carbohydrates, Salts 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0593.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0593 
 Volume    36 
4Author    M. Auro, Sola-Pennaa, JoseR. Oberto, M. Eyer-FernandesbRequires cookie*
 Title    Trehalose Protects Yeast Pyrophosphatase against Structural and Functional Damage Induced by Guanidinium Chloride  
 Abstract    Trehalose is accumulated at very high concentrations in yeasts when this organism is sub­ mitted to a stress condition. This report approaches the question on the protective effect of trehalose and its degradation product, glucose, against structural and functional damage promoted by guanidinium on yeast cytosolic pyrophosphatase. Here it is shown that both, 1 m trehalose or 2 m glucose, are able to attenuate at almost the same extent the conforma­ tional changes promoted by guanidinium chloride on the pyrophosphatase structure. On the other hand, while 1 m trehalose increases 3.8 times the K x (from 0.15 to 0.57 m) for guanidi­ nium chloride inhibition of pyrophosphatase activity, 2 m glucose did not even duplicate this parameter (from 0.15 to 0.25 m). These data support evidences for a functional reason for the accumulation by yeasts of trehalose, and not other compound, during stress conditions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 160—164 (1996); received September 15/November 15 1995 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Trehalose, Yeast, Carbohydrate, Protection, Guanidinium Chloride 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0160.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0160 
 Volume    51 
5Author    Jorge Saad-Nehme3b, JersonL. Silva3, JoseRoberto Meyer-Fernandes3Requires cookie*
 Title    Carbohydrates Protect Mitochondrial F0F j-ATPase Complex against Thermal Inactivation  
 Abstract    Federal do Rio de Janeiro, llha do Fundäo, 2 1 9 4 1 -5 9 0 . Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Fax: (+ 55) (+21) 2 7 0 -8 6 4 7 . E-mail: meyer@bioqmed.ufrj.br Organisms and cellular systems are required to adapt to stress conditions like high tem per­ ature, often responding by accumulating organic solutes, such as sugars. This accumulation is associated with the effectiveness of these osmolytes in minimizing protein denaturation and membrane damage under stress conditions. In this work, we have studied the effect of sugars on the protection against thermal inactivation of mitochondrial FoFj-ATPase complex, in preparations of submitochondrial particles containing or depleted of inhibitor protein. We observed that after 15 min of pre-incubation at 70 °C of latent MgATP-submitochondrial particles (with inhibitor protein) in the presence of 1.5 m of sucrose or trehalose, or 3.0 m of glucose or fructose, about 80% of enzyme activity remained active. In the same conditions, but in the absence of sugars, the activity of the particles was completely abolished. Submi-tochondrial particles depleted of the inhibitor protein (A S-particles) were almost completely inactivated after 3 min of pre-incubation at 70 °C in the absence of sugars and more than 60% of the enzyme activity remained active when these particles were pre-incubated in the presence of sugars. In such condition, the enzyme acquires a more com pact and heat-stable conformation. Sugars, as well as the inhibitor protein, inhibit reversibly F 0F r ATPase com ­ plex activity and protect this enzyme against inactivation by high temperature. Interestingly, the protection, promoted by sugars, of particles containing inhibitor protein is higher than of particles depleted of inhibitor protein, suggesting a synergism between sugar and inhibi­ tor protein. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 55c, 594—5 (2000); received February 10/March 31 2000 
  Published    2000 
  Keywords    Carbohydrates, Thermal Stabilization, Mitochondrial F 0F r ATPase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/55/ZNC-2000-55c-0594.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2000-55c-0594 
 Volume    55 
6Author    Gianfranco Menestrina, Flavia PasqualiRequires cookie*
 Title    Effects of Carbohydrates on the Ion Conductance of the Hemocyanin Channel  
 Abstract    The effects o f glucose and sucrose on the ionic conductance properties o f the channel formed by Megathura crenulata hemocyanin in planar lipid bilayers have been studied using m em branes o f different compositions. It was found that glucose at high concentrations strongly affects the time constants o f the current relaxations observed in m em branes containing many channels after a step in the voltage clamp from ground to a positive value. At m uch lower concentrations both sucrose and glucose strengthened the binding o f Ba2+ to the protein, what in turn has the effect to shift the conductance voltage curve o f the pore towards negative potentials. The possible mechanism underlying these effects and the analogies with other studies on the interaction o f sugars and alcohols with proteins have been discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 85—9 (1985); received October 25 1984 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Hemocyanin Channel, Planar Lipid Bilayer, Carbohydrates, D ivalen t Cations, Protein Conformations 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0085.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0085 
 Volume    40