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1Author    Kleopatra Schulpis3, A. Rtem Is Doulgerakib, Stylianos TsakirisbRequires cookie*
 Title    Changes of the Brain Synapses During Aging. New Aspects  
 Abstract    The process of brain aging is an interaction of age-related losses and compensatory mechanisms. This review is focused on the changes of the synaptic number and structure, their functional implications, regarding neurotransmission, as well as the electrical activity of neuronal circuits. Moreover, the importance of calcium homeostasis is strongly emphasized. It is also suggested that many neuronal properties are preserved, as a result of adaptive mechanisms, and that a series of interdependent factors regulate brain aging. The "new fron­ tier" in research is the challenge of understanding the effects of aging, both to prevent degen­ erative diseases and reduce their consequences. New aspects are considered a) the role of nitric oxide, b) free radicals and apoptosis, c) impaired cerebral microcirculation, d) m eta­ bolic features of aging brain, e) the possible neuroprotective role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ovarian steroids and e) stress and aging. These numerous multifactorial approaches are essential to understand the process of aging. The more we learn about it, the more we realize how to achieve "successful" aging. M inireview 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 921—929 (2001); received May 15/June 12 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Brain, Aging, Synapses 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0921.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0921 
 Volume    56 
2Author    M. Heisenberg, K. BöhlRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation of Anatomical Brain Mutants of Drosophila by Histological Means  
 Abstract    Due to its small size D rosophila m elanogaster can conveniently be used in screening experiments for anatomical brain mutants. A simple method has been designed which allows to process up to 20 identifiable flies as a single preparation in a standard histology routine. Anatomical brain mutants are very frequent. Over 60 mutants were obtained from the inspection of about 3000 brains. So far genetic variations of brain structure fall into 4 classes: (1) "low fidelity" mutants in which brains are less precisely built; (2) "brain shape" mutants with globally or partially reduced brains; (3) "architectonic" mutants which show constructional defects mainly in the repetitive structures of the brain and (4) "vacuolar" mutants with globular "holes" in certain areas of the brain. These mutant classes obviously reflect different aspects of brain development like cell pro­ liferation (2), "wiring" (3) and cell death (4). Some of the mutants may prove to be useful in anatomical, physiological or genetic brain research. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 143 (1979); received November 18 1978 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Brain, Anatomy, Development, Mutants, D rosophila 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0143.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0143 
 Volume    34 
3Author    Uwe Homberg, Joachim ErberRequires cookie*
 Title    Response Characteristics and Identification of Extrinsic Mushroom Body Neurons of the Bee  
 Abstract    The activity o f single neurons with constant discharge frequencies in the area around the a-lobe o f the mushroom bodies o f the bee was recorded intracellularly. The spontaneous discharge fre­ quency o f these neurons ranged between 5 and 95 im pulses per second. W hen stimulated, about 80 percent o f the neurons responded to at least one o f five different sensory modalities: scent; light; air current to the antennae; sugar water applied to the antennae and to the proboscis. 45 percent o f the neurons responded to two or more m odalities, these multimodal neurons are com ­ mon in the median protocerebrum o f the bee. The differentiated response pattern o f the cells does not allow a simple classification. Som e o f the neurons were identified after the injection o f the flu­ orescent dye Procion yellow. W e found 4 neurons with arborizations in the a-lobe and the calyces o f the mushroom bodies. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 612 (1979); received April 12 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Bee, Brain, M ushroom Bodies, Electrophysiology, Identified Neurons 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0612.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0612 
 Volume    34 
4Author    T. Shimizu, N. Takeda, S. YagiRequires cookie*
 Title    Levels of Biogenic Amines in the Brain during Pupal and Adult Development of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori  
 Abstract    Levels of a wide range of biogenic amines and related metabolites were determined in the brain of the silk­ worm, Bomby mori, during pupal and adult develop­ ment using a three-dimensional HPLC system with multiple coulometric electrochemical detection. In the brain of the female adults, metabolic pathways such as tyrosine (TYR-4)->dihydroxyphenylalanine (L -DOPA)-dopamine (DA), TYR-4->tyramine (TYRA), and tryptophan (TRP)->5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were identified. At this sstage, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyleth-ylene (DOPAC) was also detected. Metabolic pathways of biogenic amines in the brain from pupal to adult stages are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 279—282 (1997); received November 26/December 30 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Biogenic Amine, Brain, Metabolic Pathways 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0279_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0279_n 
 Volume    52 
5Author    Tetsu OiRequires cookie*
 Title    Biological Information Processing Requires Quantum Logic  
 Abstract    along the course of temporal development of the relevant system. In this system, the macroscopic uncertainty principle holds between observation time Ai and phase space volume AQ determined by this observation. In other words At and AQ cannot simultaneously be small. This principle corresponds to the microscopic uncertainty principle that holds in quantum physics. Through an analogy to this correspondence, it is shown that quantum logic might also govern such macro-scopic phenomena as are governed by chaos dynamics. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43c, 777—781 (1988); received March 14 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Chaos Dynamics, Brain, Information Processing, Quantum Logic Chaos dynamics, which characterizes biological information processing, generates information 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/43/ZNC-1988-43c-0777.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1988-43c-0777 
 Volume    43