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1Author    K.H G Rum BachRequires cookie*
 Title    Evidence for the Existence of Two ^-Carotene Pools and Two Biosynthetic ^-Carotene Pathways in the Chloroplast  
 Abstract    Two /7-Carotene pools were obtained in the chloroplast. It is concluded that one pool is very small like a-carotene and responsible exclusively for the biosynthesis of /?-ionone-xanthophylls. The other ^-carotene pool is proposed to be the one, that is located close to photosystem I and is involved in photosynthesis as a light protecting agent for chlorophylls against photo-oxidation. Furtherm ore evidence is given that both /7-carotene pools are synthesized by independent biosyn­ thetic pathways. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 1205 (1979); received Septem ber 4 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Biosynthesis, Carotenoids, /?-Carotene, Photosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-1205.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-1205 
 Volume    34 
2Author    StewartA. BrownRequires cookie*
 Title    Biosynthesis of Daphnetin in Daphne mezereum L.  
 Abstract    Shoots of Daphne mezereum synthesized daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) more efficiently from [2-l4C]umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin) than from [2-l4C]p-coumaric acid, and [2-14C]caf-feic acid was more poorly utilized still. These findings do not support the idea of derivation of daphnetin via hydroxylation of the caffeic acid ring at the 2 position, followed by lactone ring formation; instead they are consistent with the concept of daphnetin formation by an additional hydroxylation of umbelliferone at C-8. Umbelliferone was recovered with little l4C dilution from emulsin-hydrolysed extracts of shoots fed labelled umbelliferone, and TLC of extracts from un­ treated shoots revealed two substances yielding umbelliferone on hydrolysis. Evidence is pre­ sented from TLC and HPLC analysis that one of these is skimmin (7-O-ß-D-glucosylumbel-liferone), not previously reported from Daphne. The tracer experiments further support the theory that umbelliferone is the general precursor of coumarins bearing two or more hydroxyl functions on the aromatic ring. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41c, 247 (1986); received November 4 1985 
  Published    1986 
  Keywords    Biosynthesis, Coumarins, Daphne mezereum, Daphnetin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/41/ZNC-1986-41c-0247.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1986-41c-0247 
 Volume    41 
3Author    NicolaasJ. De Mola, Johannes Reischb, G. Erardus, M. J. Beijersbergen, H. EnegouwRequires cookie*
 Title    On the Involvement of Singlet Oxygen in the Biosynthesis of Oxygenation Products of the Furocoumarin Imperatorine  
 Abstract    The role of singlet oxygen (' 0 2) in the photo-oxidation of the furocoumarin im peratorine was investigated in vitro. Irradiation with visible light and sensitization with methylene blue yielded the im peratorine oxidation product isogosferol and the corresponding ketone as main products. The involvement of ' 0 2 was dem onstrated by studying the rate of oxidation under conditions that affect the lifetime of ' 0 2. Com pared to a range of other furocoum arins, im peratorine appeared to be m oderately active as a '0 2 generator. The extent of ' 0 2 production correlated with the skin sensitizing activity. U pon irradiation of im peratorine itself with U VA light (360 nm) no isogos­ ferol formation is observed, probably as a consequence of its photochem ical instability. Irradia­ tion with visible light (A > 4 0 0 nm) of a chlorophyll chrom ophore containing sensitizer in the presence of im peratorine, yielded isogosferol and the corresponding ketone product. This dem on­ strates that in the form ation of ' 0 2 oxidation products of im peratorine in plants naturally occuring sensitizers e.g. chlorophyll and visible light are involved, rath er than ' 0 2 produced by im peratori-ne or other furocoumarins and U VA light. The protective effect on the chlorophyll sensitized im peratorine oxidation by the ' 0 2-and chlorophyll triplet quencher /3-carotene was dem onstrated in a lipophilic solvent. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39b, 1433 (1984); received D ecem ber 12 1983 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Singlet Oxygen, Biosynthesis, Im peratorine, Isogosferol, Photo-oxygenation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/39/ZNB-1984-39b-1433.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1984-39b-1433 
 Volume    39 
4Author    J. B. Stothers, A. Stoessl, E.W B WardRequires cookie*
 Title      
 Abstract    The mechanism of the biological hydroxylation of the isopropenyl side-chain of the sesquiterpene capsidiol, to give 13-hydroxycapsidiol, has been investigated with 13C-N M R techniques, using capsidiol biogenetically enriched with 13C from [l^-^CU] acetate. The results indicate that neither an allylic rearrangement nor the formation of an epoxide intervene in the process. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33c, 149—150 (1978); eingegangen am 30. Dezember 1977 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Biosynthesis, Capsidiol, 13C-NMR, Phytoalexins, Sesquiterpenes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/33/ZNC-1978-33c-0149_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1978-33c-0149_n 
 Volume    33 
5Author    K.H G Rum Bach, B. FomRequires cookie*
 Title    Chloroplast Autonomy in Acetyl-Coenzyme-A-Formation and Terpenoid Biosynthesis  
 Abstract    Isolated intact spinach chloroplasts were supplied with 14C-labeled C 0 2, phosphoglycerate, phos-phoenolpyruvate, acetate and mevalonate and the incorporation o f radioactivity into /?-carotene and plastoquinone-9 assayed. All applied substrates were capable of crossing the chloroplast envelope. Except phosphoenolpyruvate all radioactive precursors were incorporated into ß-carotene and also into plastoquinone-9. It is concluded that spinach chloroplasts are autonom in acetyl-coenzyme-A-formation and terpenoid biosynthesis. There is a direct carbon flow from intermediates of the Calvin-cycle via acetyl-coenzyme-A and mevalonic acid existing in the chlo­ roplast leading to the carotenoids and isoprenoid side-chains o f chlorophylls and quinones. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 645—648 (1980); received March 25 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Biosynthesis, /?-Carotene, Chloroplast, Plastoquinone-9, Terpenoids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0645.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0645 
 Volume    35 
6Author    RobleyJ. Light, Klaus HahlbrockRequires cookie*
 Title    Randomization of the Flavonoid A Ring during Biosynthesis of Kaempferol from |l,2 -,3C2j Acetate in Cell Suspension Cultures of Parsley  
 Abstract    Cell suspension cultures o f parsley (Petroselinum hortense) were incubated with [l,2-13C2]ace-tate during a period o f active flavonoid production. The flavonoid glycosides were extracted with ethanol, hydrolyzed in dilute acid, and the aglycones purified by chromatography. Apigenin, a flavone, and kaempferol, a flavonol, were analyzed at 67.9 MHz by 13C FT NMR. The 13C enrich­ ment confirmed that acetate contributes primarily to the flavonoid A ring. The coupling patterns between adjacent 13C atoms o f the A ring indicate that the cyclization direction of the A ring is random in both compounds. While randomization o f apigenin could have occurred chemically through opening of the pyrone ring under the acid conditions used for glycoside hydrolysis, ran­ domization o f the more stable flavonol must have occurred biosynthetically. The latter result supports the conclusion that a chalcone is an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 717—721 (1980); received May 9 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    13C-NMR, Apigenin, Kaempferol, Flavonoid, Biosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0717.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0717 
 Volume    35 
7Author    Rainer Sütfeld, Rolf WiermannRequires cookie*
 Title    Purification of Chalcone Synthase from Tulip Anthers and Comparison with the Synthase from Cosmos Petals  
 Abstract    Chalcone synthase was isolated from both anthers of Tulipa cv. "A peldoorn" and petals of Cosmos sulphureus Cav. After certain prepurification steps, the enzymes were further purified using gel chrom atography on Sephadex G-200 followed by repeated hydroxylapatite absorption chromatography. Both the enzymes showed the same chrom atographic properties. After gel chrom atography as well as after the first hydroxylapatite fractionation, the reaction products appeared as flavanones. However, after the second hydroxylapatite step, production of chalcones was observed. Like the enzyme from tulip anthers, the synthase from Cosmos petals produced the correspondingly substituted chalcones when p-coumaroyl-CoA, caffeoyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA, respectively, were used as substractes. In both the cases, the ratios o f the different chalcones produced were found to be about the same. The appearance o f chalcone synthesis in this in vitro assay is caused by the complete elim ination of chalcone isomerase in the purification procedure. The importance of the isomerase for flavonoid biosynthesis, particularly in plant systems which are accumulating chalcones, is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 30—3 (1981); received N ovem ber 12 1980 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Tulipa, Cosmos, Biosynthesis, Flavonoids, Chalcone Synthase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0030.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0030 
 Volume    36 
8Author    W.-U Mutert, H. Lütfring, W. Barz, D. StrackRequires cookie*
 Title    of the Genus Fusarium  
 Abstract    Among various Fusarium strains tested Gibberella fuji-kuroi (SAW) WR was shown to be a high producer o f the phytotoxin fusaric acid. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 338 (1981); received January 19 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Fusaric Acid, Fusarium, Gibberella, Biosynthesis, High Performance Liquid Chromatography 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0338_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0338_n 
 Volume    36 
9Author    Jan Van Brederode, RiaK. Am, Ps-H EinsbroekRequires cookie*
 Title    Structure and Biosynthesis o f Vitexin 2"-0-Xyloside in Silene alba  
 Abstract    In petals o f Silene alba plants o f Armenian populations, vitexin 2"-0-xyloside was demonstrated to be present. The enzyme, catalyzing the transfer of the xylose moiety of UDP-xylose to vitexin, has its optimal activity at pH 7.8. Mg2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the reaction. The K m values were 2 x 10-5 M for vitexin and 3 x 10-5 M for UDP-xylose. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 484 (1981); received February 20 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Silene, Caryophyllaceae, Biosynthesis, Vitexin 2"-0-Xyloside, Xylosyltransferase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0484_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0484_n 
 Volume    36 
10Author    Jan Van Brederode, Ria Kamps-HeinsbroekRequires cookie*
 Title    Methylation of 3',4' Di-O H C-Glycosyl- flavones in Silene  
 Abstract    In green parts of Silene plants of the genotype g lR two methylated flavonoids were found: isoscoparin and isosco-parin 2"-0-rhamnoside. An enzyme has been demonstrated to catalyze the transfer of the methyl moiety of S-adenosyl methionine to iso-orientin and iso-orientin 2"-0-rhamnosi-de. Maximal activity takes place at pH 8.0 -8 .2 . Of the me­ tal ions Mn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+, only Co2+ stimulated the reaction at conc. > 2 m M . For the methyla­ tion o f isoorientin the K m values were 4 x 10-6 M for S-ade-nosyl methionine and 0.32 x 10~3 m for iso-orientin. When isoorientin 2"-0-rhamnoside was used as substrate the K m values were 5 x 10"6 m for S-adenosylmethionine and 7 x 10-6 M for iso-orientin 2"-0-rhamnoside. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 486 (1981); received February 20 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Silene, Caryophyllaceae, Methylation, Biosynthesis, Iso-scoparin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0486_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0486_n 
 Volume    36 
11Author    L. Britsch, W. Heller, H. GrisebachRequires cookie*
 Title    Conversion of Flavanone to Flavone, Dihydroflavonol and Flavonol with an Enzyme System from Cell Cultures of Parsley  
 Abstract    Soluble enzyme preparations from irradiated cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm.) catalyse the conversion o f flavanone to flavone, dihydroflavonol and flavonol. These reactions require 2-oxoglutarate, Fe2+ and ascorbate as cofactors. In the presence o f these cofactors conversion of dihydroflavonol to flavonol was also observed. With this system in vitro biosynthesis of radioactive flavone, dihydroflavonol and flavonol from [2-14C]malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA in good yield and with high specific activity is possible. We postulate that synthesis of flavone and flavonol from flavanone proceeds via 2-hydroxy-and 2,3-dihydroxyflavanone, respectively, with subsequent dehydration. The microsomal fraction of the parsley cells contains an NADPH-dependent flavanone 3'-hydroxylase. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 742—750 (1981); received June 3 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Flavonoids, Biosynthesis, Dioxygenases, Petroselinum hortense, Cell Cultures 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0742.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0742 
 Volume    36 
12Author    Gary Kuroki, JonathanE. PoultonRequires cookie*
 Title    The Para-O-Methylation of Apigenin to Acacetin by Cell-Free Extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia L  
 Abstract    Crude extracts from young Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings, shoots, and callus tissue catalyze the />ara-0-methylation of apigenin to acacetin using S-adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor. Optimum activity was exhibited at pH 9.0, and Mg2+ was not required for maximum activity. EDTA (10 m M) did not affect the reaction rate, but 47% inhibition was observed with SAH (100 u m). /?-Mercaptoethanol (5 m M) was required in the homogenization medium for optimum O-methyltransferase activity. Apigenin (K m, 50 hm) was the best substrate, but significant activity was shown towards caffeic acid, 5-hydroxyferulic acid, naringenin, and quercetin. Para-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids were not methylated. The Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine was 31 hm. Our demonstration o f a /wra-O-methyltransferase activity methylating apigenin, but not /rara-coumaric acid, strongly supports the conclusion that the B-ring methylation pattern of acacetin is determined at the C15-level in Robinia pseudoacacia. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 916 (1981); received July 6 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Robinia pseudoacacia, Biosynthesis, Flavonoids, Para-O-Methyltransferase, Acacetin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0916.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0916 
 Volume    36 
13Author    R. B. Herbert, J. Mann, A. RömerRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenazine and Phenoxazinone Biosynthesis in Brevibacterium iodinum  
 Abstract    The source o f nitrogen in the phenazine, iodinin 5, and in 2-aminophenoxazinone 7 in Brevi­ bacterium iodinum cultures is shown to be primarily from the amide nitrogen of glutamine in ex­ periments with (S)-[C 015N H 2]glutamine, [15N]ammonium sulphate, and (S)-[15N]glutamic acid. The biosynthesis of 5 and 7 is closely related; biosynthesis o f 7 like that o f 5 diverts from the shi-kimic acid pathway at a stage prior to anthranilic acid 8. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 159 (1982); received October 23/December 151981 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Phenazines, Phenoxazinones, Biosynthesis, Brevibacterium iodinum, Nitrogen Incorporation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0159.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0159 
 Volume    37 
14Author    PaulM. Dewick, M. Elanie, J. Steele, RichardA. Dixon, IanM W HiteheadRequires cookie*
 Title    Biosynthesis of Isoflavonoid Phytoalexins: Incorporation of Sodium |1,2-13C2] Acetate into Phaseollin and Kievitone  
 Abstract    13C-NMR analysis of the isoflavonoid phytoalexins phaseollin and kievitone produced by feeding sodium [l,2-13C2]acetate to wounded bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cotyledons has demon­ strated the incorporation of intact acetate units into the aromatic A rings. Phaseollin shows a specific folding of the polyketide chain, whereas kievitone exhibits a randomisation of label in accordance with the intermediacy of a 2',4',6'-trihydroxylated chalcone during its formation. In neither case was sufficient label incorporated into analysis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 363—368 (1982); received February 18 1982 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Biosynthesis, 13C-NMR, Phytoalexin, Phaseollin, Kievitone, Isoflavonoid 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0363.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0363 
 Volume    37 
15Author    V. W. Ray, R. H. DavisRequires cookie*
 Title    Biosynthesis of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Butterflies and Moths: Incorporation of Valine and Isoleucine into Linamarin and Lotaustralin by Zygaena and Heliconius Species (Lepidoptera)  
 Abstract    C -13 NMR data for linamarin and lotaustralin, obtained after feeding of either Zygaena Jilipendulae or Heliconius melpomone (Lepidoptera) with C-13 enriched valine and isoleucine respectively, indicate that intact units of amino acid with loss of the carboxyl group are incorporated during the biosynthesis o f these cyanogenic glycosides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 583 (1983); received December 15 1982/M arch 16 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Cyanogenic Glycosides, Linamarin, Lotaustralin, Biosynthesis, Lepidoptera 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0583.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0583 
 Volume    38 
16Author    Koshi Saito, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, MizuW. AdaRequires cookie*
 Title    Distribution and Variation of the Catalytic Activity of the Enzyme Responsible for Carthamin Synthesis in Safflower Seedlings  
 Abstract    Catalytic activity o f the enzyme which m ediates the synthesis o f carthamin was exam ined in the etiolated hypocotyl tissues o f Carthamus tinctorius L. The enzyme was optim ally active at pH 5.2 in citrate buffer. The activity o f the enzyme was highest in the extract from 2-day-old seedlings after sowing and it declined sharply with tissue ageing. The enzym e activity was localized in the apical region o f the seedlings and moreover it was preferentially associated with the cytosol fraction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 724 (1983); received May 5 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Carthamus tinctorius L, Carthamin, Biosynthesis, Safflower Seedling 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0724.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0724 
 Volume    38 
17Author    Ii Carotinoide, H. Ainfried, E. A. Schenk, H. Arald, S. TranskyRequires cookie*
 Title    Der Einfluß von Cycloheximid und Chloramphenicol auf die Biosynthese der Photosynthese-Pigmente in Cyanophora paradoxa Korsch  
 Abstract    The Influence o f Cyclohexim ide and C hloram phenicol on the B iosynthesis o f the Photosynthetic Pigm ents in Cyanophora paradoxa. II. C arotenoids M argarete N eu-M üller, To prove the extent to which the endocyanelle o f C. paradoxa is autonom ous with respect to the biosynthesis o f its photosynthetic pigments, the degree, to w hich the translation inhibitors cyclohexim ide (CHI) and chloramphenicol (CA) influence the biosynthesis o f carotenoids, was 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 984—9 (1983); received July 19 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    Cyanophora paradoxa, Biosynthesis, /?-Carotene, Zeaxanthin, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0984.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0984 
 Volume    38 
18Author    H. Artm, Ut KayserRequires cookie*
 Title    De novo Synthesis and Levels of Cytochrome c and a Biliprotein during Pupal-Adult Development of a Butterfly, Pieris brassicae  
 Abstract    Using a sensitive pH-difference spectroscopic method in combination with a three-column procedure of ion-exchange chromatography (overall yield 94%) the levels o f cytochrome c in the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, were determined from the last larval instar to the adult 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 938—947 (1984); received May 21/July 25 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Cytochrome c, Biliprotein, Biosynthesis, Development, Insects 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0938.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0938 
 Volume    39 
19Author    Hartmut Kayser, Ute Krull-SavageRequires cookie*
 Title    Development-Specific Incorporation of [14C]5-Aminolevulinate and pHJLeucine into Cytochrome c and Biliprotein in the Butterfly, Pieris brassicae. Correlation with the Ecdysteroid Titer in the Pupa  
 Abstract    Incorporation of [14C]5-aminolevulinate and [3H]leucine into cytochrome c, biliprotein and total soluble protein was followed from the last larval instar to the adult stage in Pieris brassicae. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 39c, 948—957 (1984); received May 21 /July 25 1984 
  Published    1984 
  Keywords    Cytochrome c, Biliprotein, Biosynthesis, Ecdysteroids, Insect Development 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/39/ZNC-1984-39c-0948.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1984-39c-0948 
 Volume    39 
20Author    NigelC P Baldwin, BarrieW. Bycroft, PaulM. Dewick, John Gilbert, Ian HoldenRequires cookie*
 Title    Biosynthesis of Trichothecene My cotoxins in Fusarium culmorum Cultures  
 Abstract    A high yielding production of the trichothecene mycotoxin 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON) in cultures of Fusarium culmorum is described. By supplying [14C]acetate, 14C-labelled 3-AcDON suitable for further metabolic studies has been obtained. The pattern of labelling has been ascertained by using 13C-labelled acetate precursors, and is in line with established biosynthetic data. A second trichothecene produced in significant amounts by F. culmorum has been identified as 3a, 15-diacetoxy-7a, 8a-dihydroxy-12, 13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene (7a, 8 a-dihydroxycalonec-trin). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 514—518 (1985); received May 8 1985 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Mycotoxin, Trichothecene, Fusarium, Biosynthesis, 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0514.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0514 
 Volume    40 
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