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1Author    J.M F G Aerts, A. W. SchramRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation of Vacuoles from the Upper Epidermis of Petunia Hybrida Petals I. A Comparison of Isolation Procedures  
 Abstract    Vacuoles were isolated from the upper epiderm is o f petals o f Petunia hybrida line R27 using three different procedures. U tilizing the vacuolar localization o f anthocyanin, vacuolar prep­ arations obtained through polybase treatment, osm otic shock and m echanical forces were com ­ pared on purity, yield and stability. The com parison indicated that application o f the polybase procedure results in the best vacuolar preparations. Vacuoles could be obtained which m ain­ tained their acidic pH and retained their anthocyanin content. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 189—1 (1985); received June 26/O ctober 26 1984 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Petunia hybrida, Vacuoles, Protoplasts, Anthocyanins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0189.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0189 
 Volume    40 
2Author    Judit Kissim, Á. Gnes Tantos3, Annam Ária, M. Észáros3, ErzsébetJ. Ám Bor-Benczúrb, G. Ábor Horváth3Requires cookie*
 Title    Stress Alterations in Growth Parameters, Pigment Content and Photosynthetic Functions of in vitro Cultured Plants  
 Abstract    Effects of different concentrations of glucose, sucrose and the natural growth regulator, triacontanol were studied under the unfavourable stress conditions of micropropagation of two woody plants, Sorbus rotundifolia L. and Primus x davidiopersica 'Piroska'. After 4 -6 weeks of cultures, the number and length of shoots, the photosynthetic activity as well as the chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents were investigated. As shown by the growth parameters, the optimal carbohydrate concentration was between 1 .5 -2 .5 % , whereas in higher concentrations, a definite inhibition could be observed. A similar response was found in changes of the anthocyanin content in Prunus x davidiopersica 'Piroska', but this effect was less pronounced with the photosynthetic pigments in both species. The Fv/Fm ratio representing the quantum yield of photosynthesis was low due to the inhibitory effect of stress and altered significantly by changing the carbohydrate concentrations. In all cases, the addition of 2 -4 jig triacontanol/1 further enhanced the stimulating effect of the optimal carbohydrate concentrations, which indicated the specific importance of the appropriate hor­ mone balance under such stress conditions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 834—8 (1999); received November 28 1998/March 18 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Anthocyanin, Fluorescence, Huckberry, Peach, Triacontanol 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-0834.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-0834 
 Volume    54 
3Author    Naaman Akaviaa, Dieter Strackb, Avner Cohen3Requires cookie*
 Title    The Coloration of Gladiolus I. Survey of Anthocyanins in Petals of Gladiolus  
 Abstract    The six common anthocyanidins found in Gladiolus petals occur in four types o f glycosilation: 3-glucoside, 3-rhamnoglucoside, 3,5-diglucoside, and 3-rhamnoglucoside-5-glucoside. The six monoglucosides appear in minute quantities, whereas any of the other 18 anthocyanins can serve as the m ajor contributor to the coloration of Gladiolus petals. In high performance liquid chrom atographic analyses of petal pigm ent composition o f nine cultivars, it was found that the anthocyanins are grouped on the basis of the aglycon substitution. Thus, pelargonidin appears by itself (group I), cyanidin and peonidin constitute group II, and delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin group III. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 378 (1981); received January 28 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Gladiolus, Iridaceae 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0378.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0378 
 Volume    36 
4Author    R. R. Br, G. Spribille, ForkmRequires cookie*
 Title    Genetic Control of Chalcone Synthase Activity in Flowers of Matthiola incana  
 Abstract    Chalcone synthase activity was demonstrated in enzyme preparations from flowers o f defined genotypes of Matthiola incana (stock). The product formed from 4-coumaroyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA was naringenin and not the isomeric chalcone, because chalcone isomerase was also present in the reaction mixture. Chalcone synthase activity could be detected only in flower extracts o f genotypes with wild-type alleles at the locus f Thus, the interruption of the anthocyanin pathway in white flowering lines with recessive alleles (ff) of this gene is clearly due to a lack o f this enzyme activity. Independent on the genetic state of the locus b which controls the formation of pelargonidin or cyanidin, respectively, in the flowers, 4-coumaroyl-CoA was the only suitable substrate for the condensation reaction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 619 (1981); received April 3 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Chalcone Synthase, Genetic Control, Matthiola incana 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0619.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0619 
 Volume    36 
5Author    V. HemlebenRequires cookie*
 Title    Anthocyanin Carrying Structures in Specific Genotypes of Matthiola incana R. Br  
 Abstract    Several lines of the genetically well defined Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae) concerning the anthocyanin biosynthesis (line 02, 06, 10, and 14) store the anthocyanin pigment as crystals (line 06) or in anthocyanoblasts ("balls") in the epidermal cells (line 02, 10, and 14) o f the flower petals. The genetic constitution o f these genotypes is in addition to the basic factors f +, g+, and e+, b+b+ or bb (cyanidin or pelargonidin type), 11, u+u+, and v+v+ or vv, demonstrating that the 11, u+u+ constitution is responsible for precipitation of anthocyanins in a certain structure indepen­ dent of the other modificationally acting genes b and v. The 11, u+u+ types accumulate preferentially acylated 3-biosides. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 36c, 925 (1981); received September 29 1981 
  Published    1981 
  Keywords    Anthocyanin, 3-Biosides, Crystals, Matthiola incana, Brassicaceae 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/36/ZNC-1981-36c-0925.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1981-36c-0925 
 Volume    36 
6Author    J.M F G Aerts, A. W. SchramRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation of Vacuoles from the Upper Epidermis of Petunia Hybrida Petals ü . Vacuolar Localization of Some Hydrolases  
 Abstract    In vacuoles isolated from petal upper epiderm is o f Petunia hybrida through polybase-induced lysis o f protoplasts the vacuolar localization o f x-m annosidase and x-galactosidase was dem on­ strated. N o association was observed between the tonoplast and these hydrolases. Protoplasts from different mutant lines blocked in anthocyanin biosynthesis were treated with DEAE-dextran to release vacuoles. The differences in quality o f the obtained vacuolar preparations indicated the relation between mutant line used and successful application o f the polybase-procedure. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 196 (1985); received June 26/O ctober 26 1984 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Petunia hybrida, Vacuoles, Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, H ydrolases 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0196.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0196 
 Volume    40 
7Author    Janina Gabrielska3, Jan Oszmiańskib, Małgorzata Komorowskac, Marek Langner3Requires cookie*
 Title    Anthocyanin Extracts with Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Effect  
 Abstract    The antioxidative activity of three anthocyanin pigments, extracted from the fruits of chokeberry, honeysuckle and sloe, were studied. Lipid oxidation in the liposome membrane, induced by UV radiation, was evaluated with a thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay. The antioxidant efficiency of the studied compounds follows this sequence: chokeberry > sloe > honeysuckle. The extract concentrations at which a 50% reduction of phosphatidylcho­ line oxidation was observed, were respectively: 48, 54 and 60 mg/1. The end products of lipid membrane oxidation were evaluated using HPLC. It was found that the antioxidative potency of anthocyanin extracts is concentration-dependent. As shown by E P R technique the effi­ ciency of the extracts to eliminate free radicals from the solution follows the order of the antioxidant activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54c, 319 (1999); received December 2 1998/January 22 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Antioxidant, Anthocyanin, Liposome, TBA -Reactive Product 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/54/ZNC-1999-54c-0319.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1999-54c-0319 
 Volume    54 
8Author    Florenz Sasse, Dietlinde Backs-Hüsemann, Wolfgang BarzRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation and Characterization of Vacuoles from Cell Suspension Cultures of Daucus carota  
 Abstract    A reliable procedure for the isolation o f vacuoles from anthocyanin-containing cells o f Daucus carota cell suspension cultures has been developed. From cells o f the late linear growth phase, protoplasts were prepared and purified in a sucrose/sorbitol gradient. Vacuoles were liberated from these protoplasts by osm otic shock and purified in a M etrizamide step gradient. The vacuole-containing fractions were analysed for their anthocyanin content as a measure for the yield o f vac­ uoles. The purity o f vacuoles was examined by assaying various marker enzym es in both proto­ plasts and vacuoles. The purest vacuolar fraction had 8% o f the total activity o f glucose-6-phos-phate dehydrogenase (marker for cytosol), 8% o f cytochrom e oxidase (m itochondria) and 10% o f N A DPH -cytochrom e c reductase (ER). 55% o f the acid phosphatase activity o f the protoplasts and 35% o f the total malate were recovered in the vacuoles. The vacuolar pool o f am ino acids is quite large. D ata for 15 am ino acids show that 44 to 73% are being located in the vacuole. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 34c, 848—853 (1979); received M ay 15 1979 
  Published    1979 
  Keywords    Daucus carota, Protoplasts, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, A m ino Acids, Anthocyanin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/34/ZNC-1979-34c-0848.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1979-34c-0848 
 Volume    34 
9Author    D. Ieter, S. Track3, N. Aam, A. Kaviab, HansR. EznikaRequires cookie*
 Title    High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Identification of Anthocyanins  
 Abstract    A high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for a rapid identification o f antho­ cyanins is described. Besides their characteristic retention times, anthocyanins can easily be identified by an HPLC examination o f the kinetics of appearance and disappearance o f their partial hydrolysis products. This method is also applicable to 3-deoxyanthocyanins which is demonstrated with an extract from the fern Blechnum brasiliense. The described method allows optimal resolution of complex anthocyanin mixtures in the fol­ lowing sequence o f elution: 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside; 3-rutinoside-5-glucoside; 3,5-diglucoside; 3-sophoroside; 3-galactoside; 3-glucoside; 3-rutinoside; 5-glucoside; aglycone, and finally the forms acylated with /?-coumaric acid. Substitution in the B-ring o f the aglycone structure is the key factor for the range o f the retention time. Thus cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside elutes earlier (—38 sec) than pelargonidin 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 533—538 (1980); received March 20 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, 3-Deoxyanthocyanins, Partial Hydrolysis, High Performance Liquid Chromato­ graphy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0533.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0533 
 Volume    35 
10Author    G. Forkm, W. Heller, H. GrisebachRequires cookie*
 Title    Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Flowers of Matthiola incana Flavanone 3-and Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylases  
 Abstract    Enzyme preparations from flowers o f defined genotypes o f Matthiola incana contain two dif­ ferent hydroxylases for hydroxylation of naringenin in the 3-and 3'-position, respectively. The 3-hydroxylase is a soluble enzyme and requires as cofactors 2-oxoglutarate, Fe2+ and ascorbate. Besides naringenin eriodictyol is a substrate for the 3-hydroxylase. The 3'-hydroxylase is localized in the microsomal fraction and requires NADPH as cofactor. Naringenin and dihydro-kaempferol but not 4-coumarate or 4-coumaroyl-CoA are substrates for this enzyme. 3'-Hy-droxylase activity is present only in genetic lines of M. incana with the wild-type allele b +. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 691—6 (1980); received June 25 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Biosynthesis, Flavanon 3-Hydroxylase, Flavonoid 3'-Hydroxylase, Matthiola incana 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0691.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0691 
 Volume    35 
11Author    G. Stotz, G. ForkmRequires cookie*
 Title    Hydroxylation of the B-Ring of Flavonoids in the 3'-and 5'-Position with Enzyme Extracts from Flowers of Verbena hybrida  
 Abstract    Enzyme preparations from flowers of Verbena hybrida do not only catalyse hydroxylation of the B-ring of flavanones and dihydroflavonols in the 3'-position but also in the 5'-position. Enzyme activity for 3',5'-hydroxylation was found to be localized in the microsomal fraction and required NADPH as cofactor. Evidence is provided that the formation o f the 3',4\5'-hydroxylated flavanone (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone) and dihydroflavonol (dihydromy-ricetin), respectively, proceeds via the corresponding 3',4'-hydroxylated compounds eriodictyol and dihydroquercetin, respectively, which are most probably formed by action o f the same enzyme. Enzyme activity for 3',5'-hydroxylation was found to be strictly correlated with the prescence of 3',4',5'-hydroxylated flavonoid compounds in the flowers. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 37c, 19—23 (1982); received October 141981 
  Published    1982 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Biosynthesis, Flavonoid 3', 5'-Hydroxylation, Verbena hybrida 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/37/ZNC-1982-37c-0019.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1982-37c-0019 
 Volume    37 
12Author    A. W. Schram, L.M V Jonsson, P. De VlamingRequires cookie*
 Title    Identification of Anthocyanins and Intermediates of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis from Petunia hybrida Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography  
 Abstract    A procedure to identify dihydroflavonol (glucosides), cinnam ic acids and anthocyanins in flowers of Petunia hybrida is presented. Nearly all known interm ediates and anthocyanins ocur-ring in Petunia are separated on one column using different elution systems. Hydrolysis of extracts before HPLC and thin layer chrom atography is in some cases necessary to m ake positive identification of flavonoids. Anthocyanins in flowers o f Petunia hybrida can occur, depending on genotype, as acylated anthocyanins. Two types o f acylated anthocyanins have been identified differing in polarity and thus in retention times on HPLC and TLC. The difference in acylation is genetically deter­ mined and gives rise to m inor colour differences. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 38c, 342—345 (1983); received February 21 1983 
  Published    1983 
  Keywords    High Performance Liquid Chrom atography, Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Cinnam ic Acids, Petunia hybrida 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/38/ZNC-1983-38c-0342.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1983-38c-0342 
 Volume    38 
13Author    K. Stich, T. Eidenberger, F. W. Urst, G. ForkmRequires cookie*
 Title    Flavonol Synthase Activity and the Regulation of Flavonol and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis during Flower Development in Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Carnation)  
 Abstract    Flavonol synthase (FLS) was demonstrated in crude extracts from flower buds o f Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation). The enzyme catalyzed the conversion o f dihydrokaempferol and dihydroquercetin to kaempferol and quercetin, respectively. The reaction required 2-oxoglutarate, ferrous ion and ascorbate as co-factors and had a pH optimum at about 7.4. The demonstration o f FLS activity allowed comparative studies on flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis during bud and flower developm ent. Besides FLS the flavonoid enzymes chal­ cone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FH T) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (D F R) were measured. D F R is specifically involved in anthocyanin synthesis, while CHS and FHT provide dihydroflavonol, the com m on substrate for both FLS and D F R . Maximum ex­ pression o f CHS, FHT and FLS activity was already observed in small buds, whereas D FR activity started to increase much later and reached its highest level in opened flowers. A sub­ stantial correlation was observed between the time courses o f FLS and D F R activity and the accumulation o f flavonols and anthocyanins, respectively. The com petition o f FLS and D F R for dihydroflavonols was found to be largely circumvented by different substrate specificities and by the sequential expression o f the two enzymes. Both flavonols and anthocyanins are obviously not, or only to some extent, subject to degradation. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 47c, 553 (1992); received February 17/April 21 1992 
  Published    1992 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, Flavonoid Enzymes, Flavonols, Flower D evelopm ent, Dianthus caryophyllus 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/47/ZNC-1992-47c-0553.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1992-47c-0553 
 Volume    47 
14Author    U. Margna, L. Laanest, E. Margna, T. VainjärvRequires cookie*
 Title    L-Tyrosine as a Precursor of Flavonoids in Buckwheat Cotyledons  
 Abstract    Exogenous L-tyrosine was incorporated 1 3 -1 4 tim es less effectively than exogenous L-phenyl-alanine into flavonoids in excised cotyledons o f 3 days old buckw heat seedlings but proved to be an only 5 times poorer precursor when the experim ents were carried out with 5 days old material. Simultaneous administration o f L-phenylalanine m arkedly reduced incorporation o f L-tyrosine into flavonoids. A similar decrease in the utilization o f exogenous L-tyrosine for flavonoid b io­ synthesis occurred in kinetin-treated cotyledons. H owever, in cotyledons treated with high doses o f glyphosate, an inhibitor o f the shikim ic acid pathway, an increase in the formation o f flavonoids from exogenously supplied L-tyrosine was observed. Under all conditions the relative incorporation rate o f exogenous L-tyrosine was highest for anthocyanins and lowest for C-glyco-sylflavones while within the latter class o f com pounds the luteolinic derivatives orientin and iso-orientin incorporated more label than their apigeninic analogues vitexin and isovitexin. PAL and TAL activities were found to be present in the cotyledons in a ratio o f 50:1. The possible role o f L-tyrosine as an alternative natural precursor for the biosynthesis o f flavonoids and other related polyphenols is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 40c, 154 (1985); received April 24/O ctober 29 1984 
  Published    1985 
  Keywords    Anthocyanins, Flavonoids, Biosynthesis, [14C-L]Tyrosine, [14C-L]Phenylalanine, Kinetin, Glyphosate, Fagopyrum esculentum 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/40/ZNC-1985-40c-0154.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1985-40c-0154 
 Volume    40