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1Author    P. He, A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Quantitative Changes of the Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Leaves of Aleurites montana as a Consequence of Growth under 700 ppm C 0 2 in the Atmosphere  
 Abstract    Leaf lipids of Aleurites plants that were cultivated for 5 months in air containing 700 ppm C 0 2, were compared to those of control plants cultivated at 350 ppm C 0 2. The content of ether soluble lipids referred to dry matter is the same in C 0 2-and control plants. The com ­ parison of lipids analyzed as the pigments chlorophyll and carotenoids, phospholipids and glycolipids shows that the ratio of phospholipids and glycolipids is slightly shifted in favor of phospholipids in C 0 2-plants. Thus, within the group o f phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol occur in higher concentrations in CÖ2-plants. Although the differences in the lipid content appear moderate in C 0 2-and control plants, it is the saturation degree of fatty acids that differs substantially. The fatty acids of C 0 2-plants contain according to the higher phospholipid content approx. 5% more saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid is three-fold increased. W hereas in the phospholipid fraction saturated fatty acids comprise one half of all fatty acids, the unsaturated fatty acids make up for 80 to 90% in the glycolipid fraction. In C 0 2-plants not only in the phospholipid fraction but also in the glycolipid fraction saturated fatty acids occur in a higher portion. This means that not only in the cell membrane of C 0 2-plants but also in the thylakoid membrane the fluidity is decreased. Also in the wax-fraction long-chained carbonic acids with 2 0 -2 6 carbon atoms occur. A s the portion of these carbonic acids is twice as high in C 0 2-plants, it is concluded that a stronger formation of the wax layers exists in C 0 2-plants. By means of Western blotting and by the use of lipid and carotenoid antisera the binding of lipids onto proteins of photosystem II and photosystem I was analyzed. It is seen that besides the major amount of lipids which build up the thylakoid membrane, som e lipids are also bound to membrane peptides. Whereas monogalactolipid is bound to the LHCP-com-plex peptides, to the O E C r peptide and the 43 and 47 kDa chlorophyll binding peptides, the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiglyceride and phosphatidylglycerol and digalactolipid are bound to the core peptides of PS II and PS I. ß-carotene and the xanthophylls were found to be bound to the core peptides and ß-carotene and violaxanthin were also bound to the light-harvesting pigment complex. A bbreviations: PS I, photosystem I; PS II, photosystem II; LHCP, light harvesting pigment protein complex; M GDG, monogalactosyldiglyceride; D G D G , digalacto-syldiglyceride; O E Q , oxygen evolution complex peptide (33 kDa); PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Tris-HCl, tris[hydroxymethyl]amino-methane; SDS, so­ dium dodecylsulfate, EDTA, ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid; DTT, dithiothreitol; BPB, bromophenol blue (3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromphenolsulfone phthalein); Tricine, (N-tris[Hydroxymethyl]methylglycine). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 833—8 (1996); received October 2/October 29 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Leaf Lipids, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Chlorophyll 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0833.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0833 
 Volume    51 
2Author    P. H., A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    A Quantitative Evaluation of the Lipid Composition of Leaves of Aleurites montana as a Consequence of Growth under 0.3 ppm S 0 2 in the Atmosphere  
 Abstract    Gassing during 14 days of Aleurites plants with 0.3 ppm S 0 2 leads to quantitative modifica­ tions of the lipid composition of leaves. The ratio of phospholipids to glycolipids is shifted from 1:3 in control plants to 1:1.8 in S 0 2-plants. Glycolipids decrease from 62% of total lipids in control plants to 50% in S 0 2-plants. On the other hand phospholipids increase from 20% in control plants to 28% of total lipids in S 0 2-plants. This implies that not only the thylakoid 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 325 (1997); received February 14/March 12 1997 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Leaf Lipids, Glycolipids, Phospholipids, Pigments 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0325.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0325 
 Volume    52 
3Author    A. Radunz3, P. H. Eb, G. H. Schmid3Requires cookie*
 Title    Analysis of the Seed Lipids of Aleurites montana  
 Abstract    The seed lipids of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana are composed of 97.2% triglycerides, 2% phospholipids and of 0.8% glycolipids. In the triglycerides 67% of all fatty acids are a-eleostearic acid (configuration C 18:3, A9 cis, A11 trans, A 13 trans). This acid is bound in the triglycerides in the 1,3 position. Via mercury Il-acetate adducts and subsequent chromatography on silica gel a separation of this fatty acid from the seed fatty acids is possible. By this procedure an a-eleostearic acid-free tung-oil mixture is obtained, which consists by one half of C i8:2, 25% of C 18:1 and by 25% of the saturated fatty acids C 16;0, C 18:0 and 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53c, 305 (1998); received February 5/March 6 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, Tung Oil, a-Eleostearic Acid, Triglycerides, Phospholipids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/53/ZNC-1998-53c-0305.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1998-53c-0305 
 Volume    53 
4Author    P. He, A. Radunz, K. P. Bader, G. H. SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    Influence of C 0 2 and S 0 2 on Growth and Structure of Photosystem II of the Chinese Tung-Oil Tree Aleurites montana  
 Abstract    Three months old plants of the Chinese tung-oil tree Aleurites montana were cultivated for 4 months in air containing an increased amount o f 700 ppm C 0 2. During the exposure to 700 ppm C 0 2 the plants exhibited a considerably stronger growth (3 0 -4 0 %) in compari­ son to the control plants (grown in normal air). In these C02-plants during the entire analyz­ ing period the amount of soluble proteins, of soluble sugars and the chlorophyll content were lower than in control plants. The protein content, referred to leaf area, increased during this time in both plant types by approx. 50% but with a different time course. The increase is faster in C02-plants compared to control plants, and ends up with similar values in both plants after 4 months. No difference is seen between sun and shade leaves. The chlorophyll content in both sun and shade leaves is 20% lower in C02-plants. Whereas the chlorophyll content in sun leaves stays constant during developm ent, it has increased in shade leaves by 20% at the end of the 4 months period. The content of soluble sugars is lower in C 0 2-plants compared to control plants. The difference is bigger in sun leaves than in shade leaves. The ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content almost doubles within the experimentation period, but seem s to be subject to large variations. C02-plants contain in general less ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase than control plants. The content of coupling factor of photophosphorylation is 20% lower in C02-plants when compared to control plants and remains during developm ent more constant in C02-plants. The molecular structure of the photosystem II-complex undergoes under the influence o f the increased C 0 2-content a quantitative modification. The light harvesting com plex (LHCP) and the ex­ trinsic peptide with the molecular mass of 33 kDa increase in C02-plants. Gassing with S 0 2 (0.3 ppm in air) leads to a strong damage of the plants. The damaging influence is already seen after 6 days and leads to a partial leaf-shedding o f the tree. In the visually still intact remaining leaves the chlorophyll content referred to unit leaf area decreases by 63%, that of soluble sugars by 65%, the content of soluble proteins and that of Rubisco decrease by 26% and 36% respectively. The light harvesting complex and the chloro-phyll-binding peptides (43 and 47 kD a) increase whereas the extrinsic peptides decrease. It looks as if the simultaneous application of S 0 2 (0.3 ppm) and increased C 0 2 (700 ppm) releaves the damaging effect of S 0 2. Plant growth does not exhibit a difference in comparison to control plants. Soluble proteins and chlorophyll increase by 27% and 33% and the ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content as well as that o f soluble sugars increases by 18 respectively 14%. The peptide composition o f photosystem II shows a quantitative modification. The LHCP increases and the chlorophyll-binding peptides and the peptides with a molecular mass smaller than 24 kDa are reduced. The quantity of extrinsic peptides appears unchanged. Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and the CFj-complex o f Aleurites are immunochemically only partially identical to the corresponding enzymes of Nicotiana taba­ cum as demonstrated by tandem-cross-immune electrophoresis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51c, 441 (1996); received May 7/May 16 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Aleurites montana, CO2, SO2, S02-D am age, LHCP-Complex, Photosystem II-Complex, C F r Complex 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/51/ZNC-1996-51c-0441.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1996-51c-0441 
 Volume    51