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2000 (1)
1999 (1)
1Author    M. Athias, O. Senge, W. Erner, W. KalischRequires cookie*
 Title    Structure and Conformation of Tetra-meso-, O c t a -ß and Dodecasubstituted 22,24-Dihydroporphyrins (Porphyrin Dications)  
 Abstract    A comparative crystallographic analysis of the conformation of porphyrin diacids with various substituent types reveals considerable differences in the degree of nonplanarity and distortion modes. Diacids of 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrins generally exhibit typical saddle-distorted macrocycles with displacements of the Cb positions in the range of 0.7-1.0 A. Adding peripheral substituents, i.e., using dodecasubstituted porphyrins for the diacid forma­ tion yields similar distortion types albeit with larger out-of-plane displacements. As a result of the combined effect of both peripheral (interaction between the Cb and Cm substituents) and core (interaction between the four inner hydrogen atoms) steric strain the maximum Cb displacements reach 1.3-1.5 A. Quite a different situation is observed for the diacids of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaalkylporphyrins. Here, macrocycles with pair-wise displacement of neighboring pyrrole rings and significant NH pyramidalization and those with classic saddle distortion are found. Generally, octa-/?-substituted porphyrin diacids show smaller degrees of nonplanarity; Cb displacements ranged from 0.06 to 0.72 A. On the basis of the overall degree of conformational distortion (ZI24 = average deviation of the 24 macrocycles atoms from the mean plane), the three different types of porphyrin macrocycles studied differ considerably in their degree of conformational flexibility. For several porphyrin crystal structures with different counterions and/or solvate molecules were obtained. Taking into account results from the literature 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-22,24-dihydro-5,10,15.,20-tetraphenylporphy-rin (13) shows the smallest degree of flexibility (ZI24 = 0.61-0.63 A; four different X-ray structures),o while 22,24-dihydro-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (1) is more flexible (ZI24 = 0.42-0.52 A; four structures). The largest flexibility is observed for 2,3,7,8,12,13,18-octaethyl-22,24-dihydroporphyrin (7) (A24 = 0.02-0.33 A; four structures). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54b, 943—959 (1999); received May 4 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Porphyrins, Steric Strain, Porphyrin Dications, Crystal Structure, 22, 24-Dihydroporphyrins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/54/ZNB-1999-54b-0943.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1999-54b-0943 
 Volume    54 
2Author    M. Ath, O. S. EngeRequires cookie*
 Title    A Conformational Study of 5,10,15,20-Tetraalkyl-22//+,24//+-porphyrindiium Salts (Dication Salts)  
 Abstract    N-protonation of 5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrins with n-butyl, isobutyl, isopropyl, 1-ethyl-propyl or ferf-butyl substituents yields the respective 22,24-dihydroporphyrins (22//+,24//+-porphyrindiium salts) that exhibit highly nonplanar conformations. Depending on the steric demand of the meso substituents, the free base porphyrins have planar to moderately ruffled macrocycles (primary or secondary alkyl residues) or are severely ruffled (tertiary alkyl resi­ dues). X-ray crystallographic studies show that protonation of porphyrins with «-Bu (2), i-Pr (3) or EtPr (4) substituents leads to steric congestion of the core resulting in symmetric, saddle distorted macrocycles as evidenced by average displacements of the Cb positions from the mean plane ranging from 0.79 to 1.01 A. The structures observed for these porphyrin diacids are very similar in distortion mode and degree of nonplanarity to 5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-22f/+,24//+-porphyrindiium salts and to 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaalkyl-5,10,15,20-tetraaryl-porphyrins. In contrast, protonation of the highly ruffled 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(teA-r-butyl)porph-yrin results in a switch of the conformational distortion mode. The dication 6 shows both saddle distortion (Cb displacements -1.3 A) and ruffling of the macrocycle (Cm displacements of approx. 0.48 A). Thus, the need to accomodate four N-H units in the porphyrin core with its associated out-of-plane tilting of the pyrrole rings and the steric strain induced at the meso carbon atoms results in a highly nonplanar porphyrin with mixed distortion modes. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 55b, 336—344 (2000); received January 20 2000 
  Published    2000 
  Keywords    Porphyrins, Steric Strain, Porphyrin Dications, Crystal Structure, Conformational Analysis, 22, 24-Dihydroporphyrins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/55/ZNB-2000-55b-0336.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-2000-55b-0336 
 Volume    55