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1980 (201)
121Author    B. Schöbel, W. PollmannRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolierung und Charakterisierung einer Acetylester-Hydrolase aus Aspergillus rtiger Isolation and Characterization of an Acetylester-Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 696—6 (1980); eingegangen am 7. Mai 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Acetylester-Hydrolase, Aspergillus niger, Gelfiltration, Autotitration 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0696.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0696 
 Volume    35 
122Author    Abteilung Biochemie, C.H Boehringer SohnRequires cookie*
 Title    B. Schöbel und W. Pollmann  
 Abstract    In addition to our previous paper [1] further characteristics of the chlorogenic acid hydrolase are described. Polyacrylamid gelelectrophoresis revealed only one band for the purified enzyme. Sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamid gelelectrophoresis showed a molecular weight of 60000, demonstrating four subunits o f the enzyme (total molecular weight 240000). The enzyme is stable in a pH-range of 3 .0 -8 .5 and up to a temperature o f 55 °C. The temperature coefficient Q10 is 1.5, the activation energy EA is 6.0 kcal/mol. The amino acid analysis and substrate specificity data are given in tables. Essential for the enzyme activity is the C=C double bound neighbouring the ester linkage. The enzyme crystallizes in prisms. Weitere Charakterisierung einer Chlorogensäure-Hydrolase aus Aspergillus niger 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 699—701 (1980); eingegangen am 12. Mai/20. Juni 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Chlorogenic Acid Hydrolase, Aspergillus niger, Polyacrylamid Gelelectrophoresis, Amino Acid Analysis, Substrate Specificity 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0699.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0699 
 Volume    35 
123Author    CandadaiS. RamadossRequires cookie*
 Title    Effects of Vanadate on the Molybdoproteins Xanthine Oxidase and Nitrate Reductase: Kinetic Evidence for Multiple Site Interaction  
 Abstract    The inhibition of the activity o f xanthine oxidase by vanadate was strikingly similar to vanadate inhibition of another molybdoprotein nitrate reductase. Although the main catalytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited, the partial N AD H oxidase activity associated with these enzymes was stimulated several fold. It appears that the metal ion binds at multiple site in both enzymes. In the absence o f any enzymes a combination of vanadium (V) and molybdenum (V) in air was found to oxide NADH rapidly. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 702—707 (1980); received June 3 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Molybdenum, Vanadium, Nitrate Reductase, Xanthine Oxidase 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0702.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0702 
 Volume    35 
124Author    Heinz Rennenberg, Reinhard Steinkamp, Andrea PolleRequires cookie*
 Title    Evidence for the Participation of a 5-Oxo-prolinase in Degradation of Glutathione in Nicotiana tabacum  
 Abstract    During degradation o f glutathione in tobacco suspension cultures substancial amounts o f 5-oxo-proline are formed in vivo as well as in crude cell homogenates in vitro. The existance o f a 5-oxo-prolinase that catalyzes the conversion of 5-oxo-proline to glutamic acid was demonstrated in tobacco cells, grown with glutathione as sole sulfur source. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 708—711 (1980); received June 18 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    5-Oxo-prolinase, Glutathione, Tobacco, Tissue Culture 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0708.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0708 
 Volume    35 
125Author    Joseph Veser, H. Elm, Ut ThomasRequires cookie*
 Title    Immunological Studies of Catechol Methyltransferase from the Yeast Candida tropicalis  
 Abstract    Immunization o f rabbits with purified catechol methyltransferase from Candida tropicalis yielded a potent antiserum. Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis showed a single precipitin line. There was no cross reactivity with the catechol methyltransferase from rat and bovine liver. Specific antigen-antibody interaction was demonstrated by a potent inhibitory effect of the antibody on the yeast enzyme. Immunological titration and quantitative precipitin reaction of the enzyme showed that the maximum amount of precipitable complex occurred at the equivalence point where enzyme activity was completely inhibited. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 712—7 (1980); received April 24/May 27 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Catechol Methyltransferase, Antibodies, Yeast Fungus, Candida tropicalis CBS 94 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0712.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0712 
 Volume    35 
126Author    RobleyJ. Light, Klaus HahlbrockRequires cookie*
 Title    Randomization of the Flavonoid A Ring during Biosynthesis of Kaempferol from |l,2 -,3C2j Acetate in Cell Suspension Cultures of Parsley  
 Abstract    Cell suspension cultures o f parsley (Petroselinum hortense) were incubated with [l,2-13C2]ace-tate during a period o f active flavonoid production. The flavonoid glycosides were extracted with ethanol, hydrolyzed in dilute acid, and the aglycones purified by chromatography. Apigenin, a flavone, and kaempferol, a flavonol, were analyzed at 67.9 MHz by 13C FT NMR. The 13C enrich­ ment confirmed that acetate contributes primarily to the flavonoid A ring. The coupling patterns between adjacent 13C atoms o f the A ring indicate that the cyclization direction of the A ring is random in both compounds. While randomization o f apigenin could have occurred chemically through opening of the pyrone ring under the acid conditions used for glycoside hydrolysis, ran­ domization o f the more stable flavonol must have occurred biosynthetically. The latter result supports the conclusion that a chalcone is an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 717—721 (1980); received May 9 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    13C-NMR, Apigenin, Kaempferol, Flavonoid, Biosynthesis 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0717.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0717 
 Volume    35 
127Author    G.Erhard Talsky, ComelisP. Rygersberg, Rien Van Grondelle, Reiner Feick, G.Erhart DrewsRequires cookie*
 Title    Derivative Absorption Spectroscopy of the Pigment-Protein Complexes from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata  
 Abstract    The near infrared absorption spectra and their fourth derivative were measured in membrane preparations or in the isolated light harvesting pigment-protein complex B 800-850 from Rhodopseudomonas capsulata in order to know how the underlying molecular absorption spectra contribute to the observed absorption curve. In contrast to the observations o f Cogdell and Crofts [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 502, 409 (1978)] no splitting o f the 855 nm absorption bands was observed at 300 K, 100 K, and 4 K. However, a small but significant splitting o f the 870 nm band in all derivates (2nd, 4th, 6th) was observed at 300 K and 4 K. The lack o f splitting of the 855 nm absorption band will be discussed in the light o f the molecular organization of the B 855 moiety o f this light harvesting bacteriochlorophyll-protein complex. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 722—725 (1980); received June 41980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Derivative Absorption Spectroscopy, Bacteriochlorophyll-Protein Complex, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0722.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0722 
 Volume    35 
128Author    AkihisaN. Ishim Ura, M.Ichinobu Hashimoto, K. Atsunobu Konno, Y. Asuhiko Ohta, Satoshi Tahara, HiroyukiN. Ishim UraRequires cookie*
 Title    Radioprotective and Radiosensitizing Effects of Sulfur-Containing Amino Acid Derivatives on Mice  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 726—728 (1980); received July 25 1979/March 4 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Radioprotector, Radiosensitizer, Sulfur Amino Acids, Hydantoins 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0726.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0726 
 Volume    35 
129Author    Renate Horcher, John Wilcockson, D. Ietrich, W. ErnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Screening for Mutants of Rhizobium japonicum with Defects in Nitrogen Fixing Ability  
 Abstract    Mutants o f Rhizobium japonicum with reduced ex planta nitrogenase activity could be isolated with high frequency by direct screening of ultra-violet mutagenized bacteria growing as spots on the surface o f an appropriate agar medium permitting derepression of nitrogenase synthesis. Small glass chambers fitted with a serum cap were pushed into the agar around each spot of growth, forming a small enclosed gas space which was made to 10% acetylene, permitting assessment o f nitrogenase activity by the acetylene reduction test. Four mutants were isolated from a total of 305 screened spots. Two mutants had almost no ex planta activity, one o f which had no symbiotic activity despite normal nodulation (ineffective), the other had only somewhat reduced activity symbiotically. Two other mutants with less than half wild-type activity ex planta were normal in symbiosis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 729—732 (1980); received May 30 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Rhizobium japonicum, Nitrogenase, Nif-Mutants, Ineffective Nodules 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0729.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0729 
 Volume    35 
130Author    Ch Aulehla-Scholz, E. JacobRequires cookie*
 Title    Subcloning of the Histone DNA Sequences of Phage Lambda Sam 7 h 22 in Plasmid pBR 322  
 Abstract    Sea U rchin Histone D NA , pBR 322, Subcloning The histone D NA sequences of the Hind III cluster of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris which are carried by the chimeric phage DNA of X Sam 7 h22 have been subcloned in plasmid pBR 322. D ue to this procedure single segments of the cluster have been separated from each other and are available as gene specific hybridization probes. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 733—7 (1980); received June 18 1980 
  Published    1980 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0733.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0733 
 Volume    35 
131Author    Alfred Gieren, Bernhard Dederer, Friedrich SchandaRequires cookie*
 Title    Some Aspects Concerning Conformation of Polypeptide Chains in Proteins  
 Abstract    NH • • • N Hydrogen Bridge, (p/ip Correlations, Nucleophilic Substitution at C", y/\/x Correlation 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 741—7 (1980); received April 17 1980 
  Published    1980 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0741.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0741 
 Volume    35 
132Author    E. Jürgen Zöllner, R. Udolf, K. Zahn, D.Ietrich FalkeRequires cookie*
 Title    Deoxyribonucleases in Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 Infected Primary Rabbit Kidney Cells  
 Abstract    In primary rabbit kidney cells infected with herpes simplex virus four different neutral deoxy­ ribonuclease activities can be detected by means o f the deoxyribonuclease assay in DNA-contain-ing polyacrylamide gels following their separation by disc-electrophoresis. The method is suitable to follow independently the change in each activity of the different enzymes using only about 5 x 105 cells for each assay during the time-course o f infection. Under these conditions one enzyme activity is constant, two disappear while the activity o f a fourth one present only in in­ fected cells, increases. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 747—749 (1980); received November 11 1979/May 16 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Deoxyribonucleases, Herpes simplex Viruses, Rabbit Kidney Cells 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0747.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0747 
 Volume    35 
133Author    U. Kreibig, C. W. EtterRequires cookie*
 Title    Light Diffraction of in vitro Crystals of Six Tobacco Mosaic Viruses  
 Abstract    Iridescent gels o f the common, tomato mosaic, para-tobacco mosaic, ribgrass mosaic, sunnhemp mosaic, and cucumber 4 tobacco mosaic virus strains were prepared using the purification method of Boedtker and Simmons (J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1958). Macrocrystals which were stable for many months could be grown from iridescent gels of all viruses when stored at 0 -1 0 °C. The gels exhibited various structural phases (nematic and smectic) differing in density. The structure of the microcrystalline gels and of macrocrystals was investigated by means of optical diffraction. Distinct Bragg reflections were observed from which a mean periodicity of 340 nm was derived for all virus strains. The results indicate a crystalline multilayer structure as first proposed by Oster (J. Gen. Physiol. 33, 445, [1950]). The angular positions and widths of the Bragg reflections depended on the concentration of virus and the ionic strength. The periodicity decreased from 365 nm at 30 mg/ml virus to about 315 nm at 109 mg/ml virus, i.e. the periodicity approached the 300 nm length o f the virion. Model calculations taking into account Debye-Hückel repulsive and van der Waals attractive forces gave a qualitative explanation for the crystalline structure and its observed concentration dependence. The in vitro crystals resemble immature crystal forms observed in the living cell. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 750—762 (1980); received March 7 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Tobacco Mosaic Viruses, Crystallization, Phase Transitions, Light Diffraction, Crystal Structure, Model Calculations 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0750.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0750 
 Volume    35 
134Author    W. Olfhart Rüdiger, Thom As Brandlmeier, Inge Bios, Jens-Peter Gossauer, WellerRequires cookie*
 Title    Isolation of the Phytochrome Chromophore. The Cleavage Reaction with Hydrogen Bromide A lbert  
 Abstract    The cleavage o f the bilin chromophore from C-phycocyanin with hydrogen bromide yields 3E-configurated phycocyanobilin (4) as the major and 3 Z-configurated phycocyanobilin (5) as the minor reaction product. The reaction o f synthetic 3E-configurated phytochromobilin (2) with hydrogen bromide and methanol leads only to a methanol adduct at the C-18 side chain (7) whereas the same reaction with the 3Z-configurated phytochromobilin (3) leads to 7 and 2. The bilin chromophore was cleaved also from phytochrome after preparation o f phytochromobilin peptides. The detection o f 2 and 7 suggested that 3Z-and 3E-configurated phytochromobilin were the primary products o f cleavage from phytochrome. A reaction scheme is given which can explain the results o f the reaction with hydrogen bromide and methanol. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 763—769 (1980); received July 11 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Phytochrome, Bile Pigments, Phytochromobilin, Thioether Cleavage, C-Phycocyanin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0763.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0763 
 Volume    35 
135Author    E. F. Elstner, H. P. Fischer, W. Osswald, G. KwiatkowskiRequires cookie*
 Title    Superoxide-and Ethane-Formation in Subchloroplast Particles: Catalysis by Pyridinium Derivatives  
 Abstract    Oxygen reduction by chloroplast lamellae is catalyzed by low potential redox dyes with E'0 values between -0 .3 8 V and -0 .6 V. Compounds o f E'0 values o f -0 .6 7 V and lower are inactive. In subchloroplast particles with an active photosystem I but devoid of photosynthetic electron transport between the two photosystems, the active redox compounds enhance chlorophyll bleaching, superoxide formation and ethane production independent on exogenous substrates or electron donors. The activities o f these compounds decrease with decreasing redox potential, with one exception: 1-methyl-4,4'-bipyridini urn bromide with an E'0 value o f lower -1 V (and thus no electron acceptor o f photosystem I in chloroplast lamellae with intact electron transport) stimulates light dependent superoxide formation and unsaturated fatty acid peroxidation in sub­ chloroplast particles, maximal rates appearing after almost complete chlorophyll bleaching. Since this activity is not visible with compounds with redox potentials below -0 .6 V lacking the nitrogen atom at the 1-position o f the pyridinium substituent, we assume that 1 -methyl-4,4'-bi-pyridinium bromide is "activated" by a yet unknown light reaction. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 770—775 (1980); received May 23/June 6 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Superoxide, Lipid Peroxidation, Ethane, Chloroplasts, Pyridinium Salts 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0770.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0770 
 Volume    35 
136Author    R. Stripf, D. W. Em ErRequires cookie*
 Title    Development of Discontinuous Size Classes of Nodules of Glycine max  
 Abstract    In order to characterize developmental stages o f nodules of Glycine max nitrogenase activity in the variety Caloria, infected with Rhizobium japonicum 61-A -101, was studied in atmospheres with 19 and 40% 0 2. By the enhancement effect at 40% 0 2 four stages o f nodule development could be separated. Nitrogenase activity depends also among other things on nodule size. 3 -4 maxima in nodule number and nodule weight were found by fractionating nodules in 12 different size classes. Discontinuous size distribution was found with medium aged and old effective nodules. Nodule number (20 to 30) o f effective nodules per plant remains constant. Ineffective nodules remain far smaller than the effective ones, the number increases to more than 140 per plant and only one discontinuous size classe was observed. Bacteroids and plant cytoplasm from nodules of some size classes are characterized by their leghaemoglobin content and specific activity of enzymes o f nitrogen metabolism such as aspartate aminotransferase (E.C. 2.6.1.1), glutamate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.4.1.2) and alanine de­ hydrogenase (E.C. 1.4.1.1). The data in the various size classes are similar both in the bacteroids and the plant cytoplasm, however, leghaemoglobin content and specific activity o f the bacterial enzyme alanine dehydrogenase are positively correlated with the increasing nodule size. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 776—7 (1980); received May 30 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Rhizobium japonicum, Glycine max, Nodules Size Classes, Nitrogenase, Leghaemoglobin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0776.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0776 
 Volume    35 
137Author    Achim Hager, Roland Frenzel, D. Orothee LaibleRequires cookie*
 Title    ATP-dependent Proton Transport into Vesicles of Microsomal Membranes of Zea mays Coleoptiles  
 Abstract    ATP-dependent proton pumps were found in the vesicles of microsomal membrane fractions of maize coleoptiles. Two membrane fractions isolated by density gradient centrifugation were identified by the aid of marker enzymes and electron microscopic analysis. Membrane fraction A largely consisted of vesicles of smooth ER and of the Golgi complex, fraction B predominantly of vesicles of plasmalemma and rough ER. The pH-indicator, neutral red, was used to measure changes in pH in the vesicles after ATP addition. Due to the binding of protonated neutral red molecules (NRH+) to negative charges of the energized membrane, a strong metachromasy of NRH+-absorption can be observed. Therefore, in order to accurately measure A pH a pH-dependent change in absorption of neutral red covering the whole NR-spectrum was set up as difference spectra. The commonly employed method of measuring AA of neutral red at just one wavelength (525 nm) leads to entirely incorrect results. It could be demonstrated that the ATP-dependent translocation of H+-ions into the interior of the vesicles was most efficient at pH 7. Acidification, which reaches its maximum 10-15 min after ATP addition, can be reverted by adding CCCP. An ATP-dependent proton-translocation into the vesicles of fraction B was also observed, however, the proton translocation is less than that found in fraction A in relation to the amount of protein found in each. The membrane fraction A displays a strong oxidation of NADH subsequently followed by an alkalization of the medium. This process cannot be reverted by adding CCCP. NADH oxidation at membranes of fraction A is consequently not an integral part of a redox-pump. A possible significance of the ATP-dependent proton pump in membranes of the ER and Golgi fraction of coleoptiles is discussed in connection with auxin induced elongation growth. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 783—793 (1980); received May 22 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Proton Pump, H+-ATPase, Zea mays, Coleoptile, Auxin 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0783.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0783 
 Volume    35 
138Author    A. HagerRequires cookie*
 Title    A vena Coleoptile Segments: Hyperelongation Growth after Anaerobic Treatment  
 Abstract    Avena sativa coleoptile segments show an anomalous increase in elongation growth following a short period of oxygen deprivation (tested between 0 and 60 min) lasting 20-30 min (^«aero-biosis-^erobiosis transition effect = ANA effect). The increase in growth rate is 600% and is commensurate with that observable following an auxin treatment. This hyperelongation growth, in contrast to the auxin-induced growth, begins without a lag phase. The growth "burst" following anaerobiosis is similarly to auxin-induced elongation growth, and is suppressed increasingly by neutral or more alkaline buffers. Hyperelongation growth is suppressed by respiratory inhibitors and uncouplers. A complete inhibition is effected with KCN (0.5 mM) sodium azide (0.5 mM) and CCCP (1 |iM); amytal (in the range 0.5 to 1 mM) and sodium arsenate (0.1 to 1 mM) are strong inhibitors. Some of these compounds (KCN, arsenate, amytal) cause a slight increase of the ANA effect in very low concentrations, which is probably due to the K+ or Na+ ions present; on their own, these ions have a strong positive influence on the ANA effect. During anaerobiosis the ATP level sinks around 75% and almost returns to the old value, following the supply of air, within one minute. The cell sap pH drops from 6.3 to 5.9 during anaerobiosis within 20 min. This lowering is mainly due to an increase in lactic acid concentration. Other acids such as citric, malic, and aspartic acids show insignificant changes in concentration. The NADH content increases during anaerobiosis, whereas that of NADPH drops almost as much. The mentioned changes in concentration of lactic acid, NADH and NADPH return to the control value within 20-30 min; thus the differences exist as long as hyperelongation growth is under way. Possible relationships between the mentioned chemical changes and hyperelongation growth are discussed. One of the possible explanations is the following: the lowering of the cytoplasmic pH (normally around pH 7) during anaerobiosis due to the formation of lactic acid causes an activation of H+-ATPases in the plasmalemma and ER, since their optimum activity occurs in a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. This activation causes a greater H+-excretion into the cell wall compartment, and thus hyperelongation growth following supply of air and of ATP. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 794—804 (1980); received July 12 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Avena Coleoptile, Elongation Growth, Anoxia, Auxin, NAD(P)H, Proton Pump 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0794.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0794 
 Volume    35 
139Author    Alexandru Popescu, Stefan Antohi, Stefan Trasculescu, Adriana Aurescu, NicolaeM. Anolescu, Victor CiocnituRequires cookie*
 Title    Changes Induced by Pre-Fixation in Polycation Bacteriolysis and Surface Alterations Matching the Model of Wall Picnosis in Cell Lysis  
 Abstract    Pretreatments of B. subtilis and S. aureus cells with lower concentrations of fixative agents, led to modifications in bacteriolytic effect exerted by polyarginine and protamine: Glutaraldehyde blocked polycation bacteriolysis while formaldehyde and osmium tetroxide (0 s0 4) having no influence on polyarginine action, increased constantly the cell sensitivity to protamine in lower doses otherwise nonlytic; the sensitizing action also resulted in the extension of protamine bacteriolytic pattern including several staphylococcal strains; higher bacteriolytic doses of protamine were contrastively unable to lyse OsO? prefixed cells and gave an inconstant lytic value with formaldehyde treated bacteria. With higher concentrations, 0 s 0 4 preserved intactly its sensitizing action while formaldehyde displayed a decrease in its ability to sensitize B. subtilis cells to the lytic effect of protamine. Scaning electron microscopy of polycation treated cells showed prelytic lesions as surface granulations, shape and size modifications and cell splits. The interpretation of the results in terms of intra-and intermolecular adducts accompanied by con­ formational changes in surface macromolecules is discussed. It is concluded that the results match the model of polycation bacteriolysis by wall multizonal picnosis leading to surface splits and thereby triggering cell-lysis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 805—810 (1980); received July 9 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Poly-L-arginine, Protamine, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Glutaraldehyde 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0805.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0805 
 Volume    35 
140Author    Heinrich Buelthoff, Tomaso Poggio, ChristianW. EhrhahnRequires cookie*
 Title    3-D Analysis of the Flight Trajectories of Flies (Drosophila melanogaster)  
 Abstract    We have developed a computer system for reconstructing and analyzing three dimensional flight trajectories of flies. Its application to the study of the free flight behaviour of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is described. The main results are: a) Drosophila males only occasionally track other flies; b) in such cases the fly's angular velocity is a function of the error angle under which the leading fly is seen; c) body saccades can be demonstrated during cruising flights; d) high angular velocities are strongly correlated with low forward velocities, probably reflecting an aerodynamic constraint of flight. The 3-D technique described may provide an adequate tool for studying the organization of the systems present in flies and for relating the free flight behaviour to previous analyses of tethered flies. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 35c, 811—815 (1980); received May 30 1980 
  Published    1980 
  Keywords    Drosophila, Tracking, Computer Reconstruction, Saccades, Free Flight 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/35/ZNC-1980-35c-0811.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1980-35c-0811 
 Volume    35 
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