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1986[X]
81Author    R. Böttcher, W. WindschRequires cookie*
 Title    Quadrupole Effects in 14N and 2D Ligand ENDOR Studies of a Bis(glycinato)-Cu(II) Complex in Triglycine Sulfate Single Crystals  
 Abstract    The analysis of the 14N and 2D quadrupole interactions in the bis(glycinato)-C u(II) complex in triglycine sulfate single crystals reveals the efficiency of the ENDOR method. In both cases the complete quadrupole tensors are measured and analyzed. The 14N quadrupole couplings are explained using the Townes-Dailey approach to obtain the electronic population near the nitrogens. Using the well known relationship between the 2D couplings and the N-D bond lengths as well as the fact that the axis corresponding to the tensor component of largest magnitude lies along the N-D bond, the position of the deuterons in this Cu(II) com plex is estimated. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 436 (1986); received July 22 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0436.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0436 
 Volume    41 
82Author    A. Bielecki, D. B. Zax, A. M. Thayer, J. M. Millar, A. PinesRequires cookie*
 Title    Time Domain Zero Field NM R and NQR  
 Abstract    D epartm ent o f C hem istry, U niversity o f C alifornia, and M aterials and M olecular R esearch D ivision. Field cycling m ethods are described for the tim e d o m ain m easurem ent o f nuclear q u a d ru p o la r and d ipolar spectra in zero ap p lied field. Since these techniques do not involve irrad iatio n in zero field, they offer significant advantages in term s o f resolution, sensitivity at low frequency, and the accessible range o f spin lattice relaxatio n tim es. Sam ple d a ta are show n which illustrate the high sensitivity and resolution a ttainable. C o m p ariso n is m ade to o th er field cycling m ethods, and an outline o f basic in strum ental requirem ents is given. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 440 (1986); received July 22 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0440.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0440 
 Volume    41 
83Author    Koichi ManoRequires cookie*
 Title    Computer Enhanced SRO NQR-Spectrometer  
 Abstract    An automatic computer supported SRO NQR spectrometer system was constructed for the measurement of time dependent NQR signal intensities. The system has several functions: fast scanning (500 kHz/25 s), averaging, smoothing, automatic noise level estimation, automatic peak detection, etc. The process of the ß -* • a phase transition of p-dichlorobenzene is illustrated by the 3-dimensional spectrum. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 445 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0445.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0445 
 Volume    41 
84Author    N. Arsim, Ha Reddy, Arun Bhavsar, P.T N Arasim HanRequires cookie*
 Title    Microprocessor-Controlled Pulsed NQR Spectrometer for Automatic Acquisition of Zeeman Perturbed Nuclear Quadrupole Spin Echo Envelope Modulations (ZSEEM )  
 Abstract    A simple microprocessor-controlled pulsed NQR spectrometer system has been developed with the capability to acquire Zeeman perturbed spin echo envelope modulations (ZSEEM). The CPU of the system is based on the Intel Corporation 8085 A microprocessor. The performance of the spectrometer is illustrated with the presentation of ZSEEM spectra of NaClO3 and KClO3. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 449 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0449.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0449 
 Volume    41 
85Author    J.A S SmithRequires cookie*
 Title    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance: The Present State and Further Development  
 Abstract    The importance of nuclear electric quadrupole interactions in chemistry, both present and future, depends very much on their power to resolve problems in electronic structure and molecular dynamics. Fortunately, the subject, by its very nature, is "multinuclear"; even if the ground state of a given nucleus is non-quadrupolar, there often exist excited nuclear states which are, an example being 19F, for which quadrupole coupling constants are now being published from angular correlation measurements. Other new techniques are constantly extending the range of the experiments, recent examples being the use of SQUID magnetometers to detect acoustic 121Sb and 123Sb quadrupole resonance in antimony metal and Fourier transform quadrupole resonance spectroscopy based on fast field cycling to measure 2H quadrupole interactions in powders. Recently, much work on quadrupole interactions in solids of half-integral spin nuclei such as l70 or 27A1 has been pursued in two different ways; by quadrupole double resonance in natural abundance, and nuclear magnetic resonance in very high magnetic fields, for which enrichment of low-abundance nuclei such as 170 is often required. In the liquid phase, measurements are now sufficiently reliable for comparisons of changes in the nuclear electric quadrupole tensor from gas to liquid and solid phases to be made. The new methods of partial alignment of polar molecules in the liquid phase in strong electric fields, or magnetically anisotropic molecules in high magnetic fields, seem certain to contribute to these developments. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 453 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0453.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0453 
 Volume    41 
86Author    R. Pakula, R. SigelRequires cookie*
 Title    Generation of Intense Black-Body Radiation in a Cavity by a Laboratory Pulsed Power Source  
 Abstract    Pulsed laser and particle beams afford possibilities of generating intense black-body radiation in small cavities of high-Z material. The radiation confinement in the cavity is investigated on the basis of the non-stationary hydrodynamic equations including radiative heat transfer. It is estimated that with a pulse energy of 1012erg a temperature of about 5 x 106K may be obtainable. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 463 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0463.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0463 
 Volume    41 
87Author    Hans SallhoferRequires cookie*
 Title    Elementary Derivation of the Dirac Equation. X  
 Abstract    Final considerations of the isomorphism between electrodynamics and wave mechanics. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 468 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0468.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0468 
 Volume    41 
88Author    J. Kodweiß, D. Köhnlein, G. Kössler, O. Lutz, W. Messner, K. R. Mohn, A. N. Olle, G. Nothaft, P. Ruppert, N. Steinhäuser, D. Zepf, E. Haid, W. SchichRequires cookie*
 Title    Common Behaviour of NMR Parameters of 27Al, 69Ga, 71Ga, and 115In in Aqueous Solutions  
 Abstract    The behaviour of the NMR parameters linewidth, longitudinal relaxation time, and chemical shift of 27A1, 69G a, 7lG a, and ll5In has been investigated in aqueous solutions as a function of salt and concentration of added acid or base. A similar behaviour for the NMR parameters of these nuclei has been found. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 471 (1986) 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0471.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0471 
 Volume    41 
89Author    G. W. Qiao, J. Zhou, K. H. KuoRequires cookie*
 Title    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Some Catalysts  
 Abstract    Application of high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) to the study of Pt-Sn/y-Al20 3 supported catalyst, zeolites, iron catalyst for ammonia synthesis, rare-earth oxide catalysts, etc., is described. Micro-twins, dislocations and other crystallographic imperfections are observed. Moreover, the structure images of channels representing columns of cages in several kinds of zeolites as well as radiation damage processes in them have been recorded in situ. The observed images of zeolites were found to be in good agreement with the structure model projections and computer simulated images. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 478 (1986); received November 30 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0478.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0478 
 Volume    41 
90Author    O. L. StiefvaterRequires cookie*
 Title    Preferred Rotameric Conformations of Isobutyraldehyde, Their Dipole Moments and Vibrationally Excited States by Microwave Spectroscopy  
 Abstract    The earlier prediction o f the preferred and the less stable rotam eric conformations of isobutyr­ aldehyde, (C H 3) 2CHCHO, has been confirmed experimentally by microwave spectroscopy. The compound exists mainly in a gauche conformation, in which one o f the methyl groups is eclipsed by the oxygen atom, and the less stable rotam er is the trans conformation, in which the oxygen atom eclipses the isopropyl hydrogen. Ground state rotational constants (in MHz) and centrifugal distortion constants (in kHz), together with dipole moments (in D), are: Gauche Trans A 7494.62 ± 0.02 7707.84 ± 0.03 B 4107.51 ± 0.02 3736.63 ± 0.02 C 2980.70 ± 0.02 2815.08 ± 0 .0 2 A j 1.9 ± 0 .5 0.7 ± 0 .4 Ajk -0 . 3 ± 0 .3 48.4 ± 0 .7 A k 11.2 ± 0 .7 19.0 ± 5 .0 0.28 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0 .0 2 3.6 ± 0 .2 25.0 ± 0 .5 l/'al 2.43 ± 0.02 2.82 ± 0.02 lA'bl 0.80 ± 0.03 0.0 by symmetry Ia*c| 0.83 ± 0.02 0.46 ± 0.03 H total 2.69 ± 0.03 2.86 ± 0.03 Rotation spectra due to three torsionally excited states of each rotam er have been identified, along with satellites arising from C H 3 internal rotation and C C 2 wagging. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 483 (1986); received December 11 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0483.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0483 
 Volume    41 
91Author    E. R. Mognaschi, A. ChiericoRequires cookie*
 Title    Associating Behaviour of Pure Polar Liquids: Dielectric Properties of Pelargonie Acid  
 Abstract    The associating behaviour o f pelargonic acid has been studied by the determination of its dielectric properties. A high degree of dim erisation in the liquid phase is suggested, with the number of dim ers decreasing with increasing tem perature. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 491 (1986); received N ovem ber 13 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0491.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0491 
 Volume    41 
92Author    F. W. InterbergRequires cookie*
 Title    The Electromagnetic Rocket Gun Impact Fusion Driver  
 Abstract    An im pact fusion driver is discussed which has the potential to accelerate a rocket-like small m etallic projectile by a travelling magnetic wave to a few 100 km /sec over a reasonable dis­ tance. The propellant removes the heat produced in the projectile by resistive losses o f the induced electric currents, and is thereby ejected from the projectile at a modest tem perature. After having left the projectile, the propellant is shock-heated by the strong magnetic field of the travelling magnetic wave to high tem peratures forming a high velocity jet. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel rather than to a tenuous jet. To reach impact fusion velocities the accelerator would be a few 100 m long. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 495 (1986); received October 9 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0495.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0495 
 Volume    41 
93Author    M. Buback, J. Schweer, H. TupsRequires cookie*
 Title    Near Infrared Absorption of Pure Carbon Dioxide up to 3100 bar and 500 K. I. Wavenumber Range 3200 cm-1 to 5600 cm"  
 Abstract    N ear infrared absorption of pure C 0 2 in the vj + v3, 2v2 + v3 Ferm i diad region around 3650 c m '1 and in the 2 vx + v3, V] + 2 v2 + v3, 4v^ + v3 Ferm i triad region around 5000 cm -1 was measured at tem peratures between 298 K and 500 K to a m axim um pressure of 3100 bar. Density tuning of Fermi resonance is studied and compared with literature data on gaseous, liquid, and solid CO j-Band maximum positions determined within an extended tem perature and density range indicate appreciable rotational freedom up to about the critical density (0.45 g • cm -3) and repulsive interactions clearly coming into play above 0.9 g • cm -3. The vibrational intensity of the Fermi triad, up to about 1.0 g -c m -3 is found to be independent of tem perature and pressure within ± 2.5%, wich enables (pure) C 0 2 concentrations in a large region of states to be precisely and directly measured via quantitative high-pressure high-tem perature near infrared spectro­ scopy. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 505—511 (1986); received Decem ber 7 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0505.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0505 
 Volume    41 
94Author    M. Buback, J. Schweer, H. TupsRequires cookie*
 Title    Near Infrared Absorption of Pure Carbon Dioxide up to 3100 bar and 500 K II. Wavenumber Range 5600 cm-1 to 7400 cm-1  
 Abstract    Near infrared absorption of pure C 0 2 in the 3 v, + v3, 2v, + 2v^ + v3, V) + 4 v^J + v3, 6v^ + v3 Fermi tetrad region around 6300 cm-1 and in the 3 v3 second overtone region around 6970 cm~' was measured at tem peratures between 298 K and 500 K to a maximum pressure of 3100 bar. The 3 v3 bandshape, at m oderate compression up to 0.1 g • cm-3, is adequately represented by summing over individual rotation-vibration lines with half-widths proportional to the density. Band maximum positions and vibrational intensities between gaseous and liquid-like states are reported and discussed. Promising applications of high-pressure high-tem perature near infrared spectroscopy to the quantitative analysis of C 0 2 are illustrated for the 3200 cm-1 to 7400 cm-1 region. The technique can be used for C 0 2 concentrations or at optical path lengths differing by several orders of magnitude. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 512 (1986); received December 7 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0512.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0512 
 Volume    41 
95Author    K. DrägerRequires cookie*
 Title    Die Austausch-Kopplung von Gd3+-und Cr3" 1--Ionen in paramagnetischem GdCrQ3  
 Abstract    The Polycrystalline samples of stoichiometric G d C r0 3 have been investigated by ESR at 9.4 GHz. In the tem perature range between 175 K and 520 K one broad absorption with a Lorentzian line shape and a ^-factor of 2.024 has been observed. A ttributing the absorption exclusively to the G d -ion it can be shown that the tem perature dependence o f the ESR-intensity follows the predictions of a cluster-model. The energy describing the coupling of a single G d 3+-ion to the surrounding C r3+-ions is found to be AE(G&) = 170 cm -1. Taking advantage o f the similarity within the orthochromites it is possible to determ ine at the same tim e the exchange -coupling of C r3+-ions to their identical nearest neighbours as A E (Cr) = 293cm _1. The relative strength of these couplings given by 0.60 is com patible with other experimental issues. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 519—525 (1986); eingegangen am 25. N ovem ber 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0519.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0519 
 Volume    41 
96Author    Ariel FernándezRequires cookie*
 Title    Homology of a Structurally Stable Chemical Rearrangement  
 Abstract    The structural stability in the sense of Adronov and Pontriagin is proved to be a property of any rearrangement occurring in a single electronic state sheet of the potential energy surface if such a rearrangement involves two internal degrees of freedom. It is then shown that features of no dynamical significance (the paths of steepest descent joining critical configurations) determ ine completely those of dynamical significance: The topology of the set of paths of steepest descent determines the triangulation of the nuclear configuration space which is rigorously derived from homology theory. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 526 (1986); received July 29 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0526.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0526 
 Volume    41 
97Author    Ariel FernándezRequires cookie*
 Title    Pattern of Intrinsic Reaction Coordinates and Separatrices for a Symmetry-Forbidden Reaction  
 Abstract    The relative distribution of the basins o f attraction o f the chemical species and of the transi­ tion states is derived for the therm al isomerization o f cyclobutene to butadiene. It is shown that the transition states for the symmetry-allowed and symmetry-forbidden p ath­ ways are lumomers o f one another. Use is m ade o f the structural stability principle of Ariel Fernandez and Oktay Sinanoglu to show that these transition states are respectively the conrota-tory and disrotatory Jahn-Teller distortions o f the 2-butene diradical. The results exhibit good agreem ent with J. A. Berson's conclusions in the sense that even the forbidden pathway is concerted. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 529—531 (1986); received July 29 1986 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0529.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0529 
 Volume    41 
98Author    Ariel FernáRequires cookie*
 Title    Triangulation of the Lowest Energy Sheet for Jahn-Teller Potential Energy Surfaces  
 Abstract    The topology of the lower energy sheet for the Potential Energy Surface corresponding to the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect is obtained by means of homological techniques. K ey words: Structurally -stable dynamical system -Jahn-Teller effect. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 532—534 (1986); received July 29 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0532.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0532 
 Volume    41 
99Author    J. Richter, B. FuchsRequires cookie*
 Title    Ultrasonic Absorption and Relaxation Phenomena in Molten Nitrate Mixtures  
 Abstract    An optical device based on the Debye-Sears effect is developed to determ ine the ultrasonic absorption and velocity in molten alkali nitrate + silver nitrat mixtures. R b N 0 3 -I-A g N 0 3 and CsN 0 3 + A g N 0 3 are investigated in the total composition range between 480 K and 580 K within a frequency interval from 10 MHz to 35 MHz. In the concentration range o f high ultra­ sonic absorption we find dispersion and a frequency dependent step in the absorption curve caused by relaxation. The relaxation tim e of the structural relaxation in the molten salt mixtures investigated here is in the order of 10" 8 s. The volume viscosity, the adiabatic constant, and the compressibilities are calculated. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 535—544 (1986); received N ovem ber 25 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0535.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0535 
 Volume    41 
100Author    J. Richter, A. SeifertRequires cookie*
 Title    Transport Numbers of Molten (Cs, Ag) J and (Alk, Ag) Br Mixtures, Alk = Na, K, Rb, Cs  
 Abstract    The transport numbers o f the molten systems (Cs,A g)J, (N a,A g)Br, (K,Ag)Br, (R b,A g)B r, and (Cs,A g)Br have been determ ined by e.m.f. measurem ents on concentration cells with trans­ ference. We find again an inversion point (the mobility ratio reverses at a certain m olar ratio) within experimental accuracy with the exception o f (N a,A g)B r and (K,Ag)Br, where the com ­ position dependence is close to tMk = x ^ x 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 41a, 545 (1986); received D ecem ber 16 1985 
  Published    1986 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/41/ZNA-1986-41a-0545.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1986-41a-0545 
 Volume    41 
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