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2001[X]
41Author    Z. NaturforschRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Compounds of Propolis from Central Chilean Matorral  
 Abstract    Pinocembrin, acacetin, galanguin, izalpin, kaempferide, prenyletin and diarytheptane were isolated from propolis from Central Chile. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 273—2 (2001); received D ecem ber 6 2000/January 23 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Propolis, Structure Elucidation, Plant Sources, Phenolics 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0273 
 Volume    56 
42Author    SebastianC. ObasiRequires cookie*
 Title    Effects of Scopoletin and Aflatoxin on Bovine Hepatic Mitochondrial Respitatory Complexes, 2: a-Ketoglutarate Cytochrome c and Succinate Cytochrome c Reductases  
 Abstract    Scopoletin, Aflatoxin B^ Mitochondrial, Cytochrome c Reductases The in vitro effects of the toxin coumarin compounds scopoletin and aflatoxin B! (AFBx) on bovine (Bos indicus) hepatic mitochondrial respiratory com plex III enzymes, succinate cytochrome c and a-ketoglutarate cytochrome c reductases, were examined. Kinetic studies on the interaction of the toxins with the enzymes were also carried out. The results showed that although the observed inhibitory and stimulatory effects o f the two toxins were consis­ tent with the changes in the kinetic parameters (K m and Vmax values), these parameters were not consistent with the observed effects of the toxins at certain concentrations. These observations are discussed in terms of the relative locations of the enzymes in the m ito­ chondria, and the previously reported inhibitory and uncoupling effects of the toxins on cow liver mitochondrial respiration. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 278 (2001); received August lO/October 27 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0278.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0278 
 Volume    56 
43Author    M. Einrad Boll, LutzW D Weber, E.Berhard Becker, Andreas StampflRequires cookie*
 Title    Hepatocyte Damage Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride: Inhibited Lipoprotein Secretion and Changed Lipoprotein Composition  
 Abstract    Changes of lipoprotein secretion and composition in response to CC14 treatment were studied in monolayer cultures of rat primary hepatocytes. (1) CC14 decreased secretion of very low density lipoproteins (V L D L) by about 85%, while high density lipoprotein (H D L) secretion was less affected (about 40%). The effect was concentration-dependent. (2) CC14 significantly inhibited secretion of V LD L-and H D L-asso-ciated triglycerides and cholesterol esters. V LD L-and HD L-associated cholesterol was not affected, while secretion of phospholipids was increased. (3) Hepatocytes secreted the apoli-poproteins B48, B 100, E, C, and A-I. CC14 reduced secretion of apoproteins associated with V L D L by almost 20%, and by about 75% when associated with H D L. The de novo synthesis of apolipoproteins was attenuated by CC14. (4) CC14 caused variations in the apolipoprotein composition in V L D L and HDL. CC14 intoxication of the liver affected the morphology and/or function of the lipoproteins, which drastically impaired their ability to act as transport vehicles for lipids from the liver to the circulation. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 283 (2001); received October 13/November 29 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Liver Damage, Carbon Tetrachloride, Lipoprotein Secretion 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0283 
 Volume    56 
44Author    Alina Mihaila, GuyM. TremblayRequires cookie*
 Title    Human Alveolar Macrophages Express Elafin and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor  
 Abstract    A lveolar Macrophage, Elafin, Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) are two structurally related serine protease inhibitors present in the lung. The cellular origin of elafin in the alveolar space is unknown. It has been suggested that at least one alveolar leukocyte population express elafin. We therefore postulated that the alveolar macrophage, as the most numerous leukocyte in the alveolar space, express elafin. On the other hand, it is unclear whether human alveolar macrophages are a source of SLPI. In the present study, we showed by RT-PCR that human alveolar macrophages, but not peripheral blood monocytes, express elafin and SLPI tran­ scripts. Elafin, but not SLPI, m R N A expression was increased time dependently in alveolar macrophages stimulated with Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula antigen (50 ^ig/ml), a causative agent of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, but not LPS (10 ng/ml). Intracellular or cell-associated elafin protein accumulated after 24 h o f culture only in S. rectivirgula antigen-stimulated alveolar macrophages as shown by Western blot. In contrast, alveolar macrophages release 50 ± 6 pg/ml of SLPI in culture medium with no increase in function o f time. Alveolar macrophages could be a source of elafin in the lung. In addition to lung structural cells, SLPI could also be derived from alveolar macrophages. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 291 (2001); received D ecem ber 16 2000/January 12 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0291 
 Volume    56 
45Author    MarceloD F De Meneses, MoacyrA. RebelloRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Prostaglandin A 1? Arsenite and Aspirin on Stress Proteins Response in Mosquito Cells  
 Abstract    A edes albopictus Cells, Prostaglandin, Arsenite, Aspirin The stress response o f eukaryotic cells is characterized by changes in the metabolism of responding cells, most notably by increased synthesis o f a group of proteins known as heat shock (H SP) proteins. In this paper the effect o f prostaglandin (P G A j), arsenite and aspirin in A edes albopictus cells was investigated. In cells treated with PGA! (10 ^ig/ml) we observed the induction o f several polypeptides with molecular masses of 87, 80, 70, 57, 29 and 23 kDa. Immunoblot analysis revealed that arsenite induces a marked synthesis of HSP70, and aspirin administered during the hyperthermic treatment caused a small increase of HSP70 synthesized. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 298 (2001); received November 2/December 28 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0298 
 Volume    56 
46Author    Razia Sultanaa, Shaheen Bina, Kambiz Siddiquib, H. Taraz3, Erbert Budzikiewicz3, Jean-MarieM. EyercRequires cookie*
 Title    An Isopyoverdin from Pseudomonas putida CFML 90-44  
 Abstract    Pseudomonas putida, Pyoverdin, Siderophore, Siderotyping From Pseudomonas putida CFML 9 0 -4 4 an isopyo­ verdin was isolated. Its structure could be elucidated by chemical degradation and spectroscopic data. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 303 (2001); received January 18 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0303_n 
 Volume    56 
47Author    Ursula Hohlneicher, M. Athias Schäfer, Regine Fuchs, H. Erbert BudzikiewiczRequires cookie*
 Title    Ferribactins as the Biosynthetic Precursors of the Pseudomonas Siderophores Pyoverdins  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 308 (2001); received February 9 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pyoverdin, Ferribactin 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0308_n 
 Volume    56 
48Author    Johannes Eichel3, R. Obert, Ż. ArnowskibRequires cookie*
 Title    Variability of the Fatty Acid Composition during Development of the Green Microalga Apatococcus constipatus  
 Abstract    The green microalga A patococcus constipatus was in­ vestigated for its fatty acid com position using GC and MS techniques. Considerable variations were found in individual fatty acid contents according to the stage of culture developm ent. A set of saturated fatty acid homo-logues was distinguished as the main com ponent regard­ less of the culture age. The occurrence of som e uncom ­ mon fatty acids in minor amounts, such as hydroxylated ones, was found to be characteristic o f the studied spe­ cies. Depending on the developm ent stage, those com ­ pounds were detected either only during initial growth phases or throughout the cultivation time. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 311 (2001); received N ovem ber 23 2000/January 22 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Apatococcus constipatus, Green Microalgae, Fatty Acid Profiles 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0311_n 
 Volume    56 
49Author    G. Purna, Chandra Nagaraju, MdRiyaz Basha, P.Sreenivasula ReddyRequires cookie*
 Title    Organotin-Induced Hyperglycemia in the Crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex Fabricius  
 Abstract    Hyperglycemia, O ziotelphusa senex senex, Organotins Injection of three different organotin compounds such as tripalmitin, fentin and fenbutatin produced a signifi­ cant increase in the hemolymph sugar level of intact crabs at Oziotelphusa senex senex apparently by stimu­ lating release of the hyperglycemic hormone (H G H). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 315 (2001); received March 21/November 13 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0315_n 
 Volume    56 
50Author    Z. Oltán Szigeti, IlonaR. Ácz, Dem Eter LásztityRequires cookie*
 Title    Paraquat Resistance of Weeds -the Case of Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq  
 Abstract    C on yza, Herbicide Resistance, Paraquat The paper gives an overview of literature on paraquat resistance of weeds and the pro­ posed mechanism of resistance. New results we achieved on horseweed (C onyza canadensis /L J, Cronq.) are discussed in detail. It was demonstrated that there is no significant constitutive difference related to the para­ quat resistance between untreated susceptible and paraquat-resistant horseweed plants. The lower sensitivity of flowering resistant plants may be due to the fact that paraquat content in treated leaves of flowering resistant plants was only 25% as compared to those measured at rosette stage. Our results confirm that paraquat resistance is not based on elevated level and activity of antioxidant enzyme system. The hypothesized role of polyam ines in the resis­ tance mechanisms can be excluded. The higher putrescine and total polyamine content of paraquat treated resistant leaves can rather be regarded as a general stress response, than as a symptom of paraquat resistance. A paraquat-inducible protein is supposed to play a role in the resistance, which presumably functions by binding paraquat to an inactivating site and/ or by carrying paraquat to metabolically inactive cell compartment (vacuole, cell wall). From m odel experiments it is concluded that paraquat and diquat preferentially form hydrophylic interactions with proteins containing a higher amount o f lysine and glutamic acid. C onse­ quently, the reason for paraquat resistance in horseweed is probably a hydrophylic interac­ tion of paraquat with a protein, leading to inactivation of paraquat through forming a conju­ gate and/or sequestration into the vacuole or the cell wall. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 319 (2001); received January 24 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0319 
 Volume    56 
51Author    A. Ntoaneta Ivanova3, BozhankaM. Ikhova3, Tatyana Stambolijskab, Ivanka Kostova3Requires cookie*
 Title    Lignan and Coumarin Glycosides from H aplophyllum suaveolens  
 Abstract    Two new lignan glycosides of dibenzylbutyrolactol type (haplomarin) and arylnaphthalene type (haploborin) were isolated from the aerial parts of H aplophyllum suaveolens together with the known arylnaphthalene lignan glycoside arabelline and hydroxycoumarin glycoside xeroboside. So far arabelline is found only in H. buxbaumii. This is the first report o f the isolation of xeroboside from Haplophyllum. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 329 (2001); received D ecem ber 28 2000/February 6 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    H aplophyllum suaveolens, Dibenzylbutyrolactol, Arylnaphthalene Lignans, Coumarin Glycosides 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0329 
 Volume    56 
52Author    N. Orbert, G. Rotjohann3, Yi Huangb, Wolfgang Kowallik3, W. Kowallik@, Biologie Uni-Bielefeld, Norbert De, U. Grotjohann@biologie, Ni-Bielefeld, DeRequires cookie*
 Title    Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes of the Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycete, S u ill us bovinus  
 Abstract    In crude cell extracts o f the ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus bovinus, activities o f citrate synthase, aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase have been proved and analyzed. Citrate synthase exhibited high affinities for both its substrates: oxaloacetate (K m = 0.018 m M) and acetyl-CoA (K m = 0.014 m M) . A con i­ tase showed better affinity for isocitrate (K m = 0.62 m M) than for citrate (K m = 3.20 m M) . Analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase revealed only small maximum activity (60 nmol x mg protein-1 x m in-1), the enzyme being exclusively N A D P +-dependent. Using the artificial electron acceptor dichlorophenol indophenol, activity and substrate affinity of succinate d e­ hydrogenase were rather poor. Fumarase proved Fe2+-independent. Its affinity for malate was found higher (K m = 1.19 m M) than that for fumarate (K m = 2.09 m M) . High total activity of malate dehydrogenase could be separated by native PAGE into a slowly running species of (mainly) cytosolic (about 80%) and a faster running species of (mainly) mitochondrial origin. A ffinities for oxaloacetate of the two enzyme species were found identical within limits of significance (K m = 0.24 m M and 0.22 m M) . The assumed cytosolic enzyme exhibited affinity for malate (K m = 5.77 mM) more than one order of magnitude lower than that for oxaloacetate. FPLC on superose 12 revealed only one activity band at a molecular mass of 100 ± 15 kDa. Activities o f 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and of succinyl-CoA synthetase could not be found. Technical problems in their detection, but also existence of an incom plete tricarboxylic acid cycle are considered. Metabolite affinities, maximum activities and pH-dependences of fumarase and of malate dehydrogenase allow the assumption of a reductive instead of oxidative function o f these enzymes in vivo. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 334 (2001); received December 13 2000/January 26 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Suillus bovinus, Carbohydrate M etabolism, Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0334 
 Volume    56 
53Author    Tytti Kujala, Jyrki Loponen, Kalevi PihlajaRequires cookie*
 Title    Betalains and Phenolics in Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) Peel Extracts: Extraction and Characterisation  
 Abstract    The extraction of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel betalains and phenolics was compared with two extraction methods and solvents. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined according to a modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalents (G A E). The profiles of extracts were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The compounds of beetroot peel extracted with 80% aqueous methanol were characterised from separated fractions using HPLC-diode array detection (H PL C -D A D) and HPLC-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (H PLC-ESI-M S) tech­ niques. The extraction methods and the choice of solvent affected noticeably the content of individual compounds in the extract. The betalains found in beetroot peel extract were vulgaxanthin I, vulgaxanthin II, indicaxanthin, betanin, prebetanin, isobetanin and neobe-tanin. A lso cyclodopa glucoside, /V-formylcyclodopa glucoside, glucoside of dihydroxyindol-carboxylic acid, betalamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and traces o f un­ identified flavonoids were detected. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 343 (2001); received January 9/February 12 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Beta vulgaris, Betalains, Phenolics 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0343 
 Volume    56 
54Author    Edward Grzyś3, Krzysztof Bielecki3, Janusz SarapukbRequires cookie*
 Title    Aminophosphonate-Induced Changes of Betacyanine and Ionic Efflux  
 Abstract    Aminophosphonates, Physiological Activity Betacyanine and ionic leakage from red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. L. rapacea) roots and lilac (Syringa vulgaris L .) leaves under the influence o f new am inophosphonates were studied by spectroscopic and conductometric methods. It was found that the leakage of dye or electro­ lytes depended both on the concentration o f the compounds used and their structural fea­ tures. The results compared to those obtained for the well known herbicide Buminafos® (dibutyl 1-butylam ino-l-cyclohexanephosphonate) enabled to conclude that some of the compounds studied exhibited comparable or better activity than this herbicide. That makes them potentially good herbicides. It is possible that the effects observed are the result of action on cell membranes of the tissues used. The possible role o f the structural features of aminophosphonates in this action is discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 349 (2001); received N ovem ber 27 2000/February 4 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0349 
 Volume    56 
55Author    Cristina Recuero, C. Arretero3, AnaM. D Íaz Lanza3, Lidia Fernández, M. Atellano3, AngelR. Um Bero Sánchezb, LucindaVillaescusa Castillo3Requires cookie*
 Title    Phytochemical Analysis of Phillyrea latifolia L., a New Source of Oleuropeoside  
 Abstract    A s a part of our studies on the biologically active substances from Spanish plants, we have undertaken an investigation of the chemical constituents o f a typical mediterranean species, Phillyrea latifolia L. (O leaceae). Two secoiridoid glycosides, three phenylpropanoid glyco­ sides, one lignane and two triterpenic acids were isolated from the leaves of this species and identified. The phytochemical analysis of the aerial parts of P. latifolia revealed that it is a rich source of oleuropeoside. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 353 (2001); received January 23/February 26 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Phenylpropanoid Glycosides, Phillyrea latifolia, Secoiridoid Glycosides 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0353 
 Volume    56 
56Author    A. Lberto Dos, Santos Pereira3, AnaClaudia Fernandes, Am Aralb, M. Argareth De, A. Raujo Silva3, Francisco Radler, AquinoN. Eto3Requires cookie*
 Title    Seasonal Variation of the Chemical Constituents from Croton Species  
 Abstract    The terpenes, sterols, alkaloid (glaucine) and a-tocopherol show seasonal variation for Croton hemiargyreus hemiargyreus and Croton echinocarpus. The amounts o f triterpenes are higher during the tropical summer and in most samples the major sesquiterpene was characterized as caryophyllene. The seasonal variation of glaucine showed a maximum be­ tween June and O ctober for C. hemiargyreus, and was present only in January and June in C. echinocarpus. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 357 (2001); received October 9 2000/February 20 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    C roton, Chemical Constituents, Seasonal Variation 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0357 
 Volume    56 
57Author    Andre BucheRequires cookie*
 Title    Wavelength Shifts Correlation between Near Infrared and Ultraviolet Regions of the LHII Bacteriochlorophyll Spectrum from Ectothiorhodospira sp  
 Abstract    Bacteriochlorophyll a has a maximum at 258 nm previously related to the ring E ester system interacting with the Ji-system of the macrocycle. In this work, we compared the effect o f lauryldimethylamine-N-oxide (LD AO) and alkaline pH on both the near infrared and the ultraviolet region of the LHII spectrum from E ctothiorhodospira sp. While LDAO induces only a shift of the 850 nm band arising from the Q y transition of the bacteriochlorophyll a, alkaline pH also causes a concomitant and reversible 10-nm shift from 258 to 248 nm. Both shifts have similar apparent pKs (12.3 and 12.6, respectively). Interestingly, the presence of NaCl reduces these pKs values to 11.4 and 11.7. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 363 (2001); received D ecem ber 11 2000/January 23 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Bacteriochlorophyll, Ectothiorhodospira, Light-Harvesting Complex 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0363 
 Volume    56 
58Author    Maya Velitchkova, A. Ntoaneta Popova, Tzvetelina MarkovaRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Membrane Fluidity on Photoinhibition of Isolated Thylakoids Membranes at Room and Low Temperature  
 Abstract    The relationship betw een thylakoid membrane fluidity and the process of photoinhibition at room and low (4 °C) temperature was investigated. Two different membrane perturbing agents -cholesterol and benzylalcohol were applied to manipulate the fluidity of isolated pea thylakoids. The photochemical activity of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), polarographically determ ined, were measured at high light intensity for different time of illumination at both temperatures. The exposure of cholesterol-and benzylalcohol-treated thylakoid membranes to high light intensities resulted in inhibition of both studied photo­ chemical activities, being more pronounced for PSII compared to PSI. Time dependencies of inhibition o f PSI and PSII electron transport rates for untreated and membranes with altered fluidity were determ ined at 20 °C and 4 °C. The effect is more pronounced for PSII activity during low-temperature photoinhibition. The data are discussed in terms of the determining role of physico-chemical properties of thylakoid membranes for the response o f photosyn­ thetic apparatus to light stress. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 369—3 (2001); received January 3/February 1 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Membrane Fluidity, Photoinhibition, Thylakoid Membranes 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0369 
 Volume    56 
59Author    Halina Wysokińska, Katarzyna Lisowska, Katarzyna Floryanowicz-CzekalskaRequires cookie*
 Title    Transformation of Catalpa ovata by Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Phenylethanoid Glycosides Production in Transformed Root Cultures  
 Abstract    Transformed root cultures of Catalpa ovata were established following shoots infection with four agropine strains of A grobacterium rhizogenes. Frequency of root formation was dependent on the bacterial strain and the presence o f acetosyringone in the incubation m e­ dium. It is the first report concerning the possibility o f transforming Catalpa ovata by A. rhizogenes. Both transformed and untransformed root cultures o f C. ovata were studied for their growth and phenylethanoid glycoside production. A s with the roots of intact plants, cis-and trans-verbascoside as well as martynoside were produced in transformed and untrans­ formed root cultures of C. ovata. In hairy roots, total (cis + trans) verbascoside production could be stimulated up to three-fold of that of roots o f 6 -month-old plants grown in a green­ house, by using an appropriate root line cultured in liquid Zi B5 Gamborg medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (0.1 mg/1) in the dark but not light conditions. Transformed and untrans­ formed root cultures of C. ovata were also found to have 10 times higher martynoside pro­ duction than roots of intact plants. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 375—3 (2001); received D ecem ber 28 2000/February 13 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Catalpa ovata, Transformation, Phenylethanoid G lycosides 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0375 
 Volume    56 
60Author    JoséS. Calderón3, CarlosL. Céspedes3, Rosaura Rosas3, FedericoG. Ómez-Garibay3, JuanR. Salazar3, Laura Linab, E. Duardo, A. Randab, Isao KubocRequires cookie*
 Title    Acetylcholinesterase and Insect Growth Inhibitory Activities of Gutierrezia microcephala on Fall Army worm Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith  
 Abstract    Clerodane, Insect Growth Regulator Activity, Acetylcholinesterase From the aerial parts of Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae), four oxyflavones were iso­ lated, namely 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-3,6,8,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (1); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,8-tri-m ethoxyflavone (2); 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8,5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3); 5,2'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (4), and an ent-clerodane, bacchabolivic acid (5). Compounds 1-5, the synthetic methyl ester (6), «-hexane and M eOH extracts were evaluated against the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Gedunin, a known insect growth regulator isolated from Cedrela spp. was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice artificial diet bioassay, flavone (1), clerodane (5), its methyl ester (6), M eOH and «-hexane extracts caused significant larval mortality with MC50 of 3.9, 10.7, 3.46. 7.95 and 7.5 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. They also increased the developm ent time of surviving larvae and a significant delay in time to pupation and adult emergence. Acute toxicity against adults o f S. frugiperda was also found, 5, 6 , gedunin and «-hexane extract had the most potent activity with L D 50 value of 6.59, 15.05, 10.78, and 12.79 ppm, respectively. In addition, M eO H , n-hexane extracts, 5, 6 and gedunin caused acetylcholinesterase inhibition with 93.7,100,90.2,62.0 and 100% at 50.0 ppm, respectively; whereas 1 -4 exhibited only m oder­ ate inhibitory activity. Compounds 1 ,5 and 6 showed inhibitory activities comparable with gedu­ nin. These compounds could be responsible of the insect growth inhibitory activity of this plant. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 382 (2001); received D ecem ber 8/February 2 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0382 
 Volume    56 
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