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2001[X]
21Author    Satoshi Nishino3, Teruyuki Kobayashi3, Hideaki Matsushimab, Tadashi Tokiib, Yuzo NishidaRequires cookie*
 Title    Enhanced Nucleophilicity and Depressed Electrophilicity of Peroxide by Zinc(II), Aluminum(III) and Lanthanum(III) Ions  
 Abstract    Peroxide Ion, Zinc(II), Lanthanum(III) The binuclear zinc(II) complex, [Zn2 (HPTP)(CH3 COO)]2+ was found highly active to cleave DNA (double-strand super-coiled DNA, pBR322 and c{)xl74) in the presence of hy­ drogen peroxide. However, no TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) formation was detected in a solution containing 2 -deoxyribose (or 2 '-deoxyguanosine, etc); where (HPTP) represents N,N,N'-N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-l,3-diamino-2-propanol. These facts imply that DNA cleavage reaction by the binuclear Zn(II)/H2 0 2 system should be due to a hydrolytic mechanism, which may be attributed to the enhanced nucleophilicity but de­ pressed electrophilicity of the peroxide ion coordinated to the zinc(II) ion. DFT (density-functional theory) calculations on the peroxide adduct of monomeric zinc(II) have supported the above consideration. Similar DFT calculations on the peroxide adducts of the Al(III) and La(III) compounds have revealed that electrophilicity of the peroxide ion in these com­ pounds is strongly reduced. This gives an important information to elucidate the fact that La'+ can enhance the growth of plants under certain conditions. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 138—143 (2001); received August 7/September 11 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0138 
 Volume    56 
22Author    Yuzo Nishida, Satoshi NishinoRequires cookie*
 Title    Electronic Property and Reactivity of (Hydroperoxo)Metal Compounds  
 Abstract    (Hydroperoxo)Metal Compound, DFT Calculation, Oxygenase Reaction DFT calculations were done for the (hydroperoxo)metal complexes with r]1-coordination mode, where metal ions are Fe(III), Al(III), Cu(II) and Zn(II). Results shows that 1) the electron density at the two oxygen atoms of the hydroperoxide ion is highly dependent on the angle O-O-H in M-OOH species and the difference in electron density between the two oxygen atoms reaches a maximum at the angle O-O-H = 180°, 2) total electron density at the two oxygen atoms of the peroxide ion increases by approach of methane to the (hydro-peroxo)metal species in the cases of Fe(III) and Cu(II); on the other hand, significant decrease of the electron density on peroxide oxygen atoms was observed for the cases of Al(III) and Zn(II) compounds. These findings suggest that the (hydroperoxo)metal species acts as an electrophile in the former cases (M = Fe(III), Cu(II)) and as a nucleophile for the latter two compounds (M = Zn(II), Al(III)). The electrophilicity observed for the Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes is attributed to the presence of unoccupied-or half-filled d-orbitals interacting with the hydroperoxide ion. 3) Two oxygen atoms of the (hydroperoxo)-com-pounds of Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes exhibit quite different reactivity toward the sub­ strate, such as methane. When methane approaches the oxygen atom which is coordinated to a metal ion, a strong decrease of electron density at the methane carbon atom occurs with concomitant increase of electron density at the peroxide oxygen atoms inducing its hetero-lytic 0 -0 cleavage. When methane approaches the terminal oxygen atom, an oxidative cou­ pling reaction occurs between peroxide ion and methane; at first a nucleophilic attack by the terminal electron-rich oxygen atom occurs at the carbon atom to induce C-O bond formation, and a subsequent oxidative electron transfer proceeds from substrate to the metal-peroxide species yielding CH3 -OOH, CH3 OH, or other oxidized products. These results clearly de­ monstrate that the (hydroperoxo)-metal compound itself is a rather stable compound, and activation of the peroxide ion is induced by interaction with the substrate, and the products obtained by the oxygenation reaction are dependent on the chemical property of the sub­ strate, redox property of a metal ion, and stability of the compounds formed in the intermedi­ ate process. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 144—153 (2001); received August 14/October 10 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0144 
 Volume    56 
23Author    Bożenna Różycka-Roszak, Romuald Żyłka, Janusz SarapukRequires cookie*
 Title    Micellization Process -Temperature Influence on the Counterion Effect  
 Abstract    The micellization process of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) and bromide (DTAB) was studied at 313 K. Nuclear magnetic resonance and calorimetric methods were used. The calorimetric titration curves permitted determination of the critical micelle concen­ tration (CMC) and enthalpy of the micellization process (AH m) of the compounds studied. The results obtained were compared to those obtained at 298 K. It was found that calori­ metric curves obtained at 313 K for both compounds were similar to each other in contrast to 298 K. Especially a great difference in the shape of curves was observed for DTAC. NMR (]H NMR and 13C NMR) spectra were taken below and above the CMC values and chemical shifts (6) analysed as a function of concentration of the compounds. Comparison of chemical shift-concentration plots with those obtained from measurements performed at lower temperature showed that chemical shifts are of very similar character in both cases for analyzed groups. However, there are some quantitative differences that indicate at smaller difference in hydration of DTAB and DTAC micelles at elevated temperature. This may be the reason of decrease of differences between micellization processes of DTAC and DTAB compounds. The smaller hydration may be, in turn, the result of diminishing differences in physicochemical properties of bromide and chloride ions with temperature. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 154—157 (2001); received September 20/0ctober 20 2000 Counterions Calorimetry 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0154 
 Volume    56 
24Author    Rivaldo Niero3, Renata Moser3, AnaC B Busato3, RosendoA. Yunesb, Ademir Reisc, ValdirCechinel Filho3Requires cookie*
 Title    A Comparative Chemical Study of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Reiss and Maytenus robusta Reiss (Celastraceae)  
 Abstract    Maytenus ilicifolia, Maytenus robusta, Friedelin This work describes a comparative qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae), extracts by high-reso-lution gas chromatography (HRGC), using external standards as the method of determination and thin layer chromatographic (TLC). The results show that both plants have a similar chromatographic profile. However, M. robusta exhibited about three times higher concen­ tration of triterpene friedelin than M. ilicifolia. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 158—161 (2001); received August 8 /September 26 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0158_n 
 Volume    56 
25Author    Jörg MeyRequires cookie*
 Title    Retinoic Acid as a Regulator of Cytokine Signaling after Nerve Injury  
 Abstract    After an injury of the central nervous system it is of foremost clinical concern to prevent nerve cell degeneration and to develop strategies for the support of axonal regeneration. This requires an understanding of traumatic processes in the nervous system and their regula­ tion by intercellular cytokine signaling. Although injury-induced temporal changes in gene expression of many cytokines have been described in this context, much less is known about their regulation. This review proposes a role of retinoic acid (RA) as transcriptional regulator in nerve regeneration. Four lines of evidence support this hypothesis: (1) In various cell culture systems retinoids were found to interact with most cytokine signals that mediate cellular interactions after nerve lesions in vivo. (2) Necessary components of the retinoid signaling pathway (aldehyde dehydrogenases, nuclear RA-receptors, cellular RA-binding proteins) are present in the adult nervous system, and glial cells produce RA in vitro. In addition, recent observations indicate that RA-synthesizing enzyme activity increases after nerve injury. (3) During development endogenous RA promotes glial and neuronal differen­ tiation including the outgrowth of axons in the developing spinal cord, cerebellum, dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia. (4) Axonal regeneration of differentiated retinal gan­ glion cells and peripheral sensory neurons is enhanced by RA in vitro. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 163—176 (2001); received October 2 2000 Retinoic Acid Nerve Regeneration Cytokine 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0163 
 Volume    56 
26Author    EwaldE. SwinnyRequires cookie*
 Title    A Novel Acetylated 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Laminaribioside from the Fern Blechnum novae-zelandiae  
 Abstract    Blechnum novae-zelandiae, 3-Deoxyanthocyanins, Flavonol Glycosides The m ajor 3-deoxyanthocyanin isolated from the fern Blechnum novae-zelandiae was de­ term ined to be luteolinidin 5-0-/3-D-[3-0-/?-D-glucopyranosyl-2-0-acetylglucopyranoside] and was found to co-occur with quercetin 3-0-/?-D-[6-0-caffeoylglucopyranoside], quercetin 3-0-/?-D-[6-0-caffeoylgalactopyranoside] and kaempferol 3-0-/3-D-glucuronopyranoside. These pigments were identified by using HPLC chromatography, NM R (I d , 2d) and electros­ pray mass spectroscopy. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 177—180 (2001); received October 26/December 18 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0177 
 Volume    56 
27Author    Hiroshi Nagase3, ToshinoriN. Agaokab, AyakoW. Atanabead, Yoshiteru Sakatac, Teruhiko YoshiharaaRequires cookie*
 Title    Sesquiterpenoids from the Roots of Solanum aethiopicum  
 Abstract    , 2001 Solanum aethiopicum, Roots, Sesquiterpenoid Three new sesquiterpenoids, lubiminoic acid, epilubiminoic acid and aethione, and six known sesquiterpenoids, solavetivone, 3ß-hydroxysolavetivone, 13-hydroxysolavetivone, an-hydro-ß-rotunol, epilubimin and lubimin, were isolated from roots of S. aethiopicum L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 181—187 (2001); received December 2 2000/January 22 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0181 
 Volume    56 
28Author    Henrikas Nivinskas3, Jean-Pierre Jacquotb, Narimantas ČėnasaRequires cookie*
 Title    Conformational Change of Arabidopsis thaliana Thioredoxin Reductase after Binding of Pyridine Nucleotide and Thioredoxin  
 Abstract    Thioredoxin, Thioredoxin Reductase, Arabidopsis thaliana We have found that the binding of N A D P+ (K d = 0.86 ±0.11 |x m) enhanced the FAD fluorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana NA DPH :thioredoxin reductase (TR, EC 1.6.4.5) by 2 times, whereas the binding of 3-aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (A A D P+) (*d "C 0.1 |am) quenched the fluorescence by 20%. Thioredoxin (TR.^C) also enhanced the FAD fluorescence by 35%. The K d of TR-N A D P+ and T R -A A D P+ complexes did not change in the presence of 45 [im TRX. O ur findings imply that the binding of N A D P+ and A A D P + at the NADP(H)-binding site of A. thaliana TR, and/or the binding of TRX in the vicinity of the catalytic disulfide increase the content of fluorescent FR conformer (NADP(H)-binding site adjacent to flavin). The different effects of N A D P+ and A A D P+ on FAD fluorescence intensity may be explained by the superposition of two opposite factors: i) increased content of fluorescent FR conformer upon binding of N A D P+ or A A D P+; ii) quenching of FAD fluorescence by electron-donating 3-aminopyridinium ring of A A D P +. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 188—192 (2001); received November 30 2000/January 16 2001 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0188 
 Volume    56 
29Author    Yuki Ogura, Atsushi Ishihara, Hajime IwamuraRequires cookie*
 Title    Induction of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides and Tryptophan by Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid and Osmotic Stress in Barley Leaves  
 Abstract    The effects of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic aid (ABA) on secondary metabolism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were investigated. Treatment with JA at 100 |j,m for 48 h induced accumulation of four compounds in barley primary leaves. The accumulation of these com­ pounds was also observed after treatm ent with ABA at 100 ^m. The induced compounds were identified as p-coumaroylputrescine, p-coumaroylagmatine, p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyagmatine and tryptophan by spectroscopic methods. The profiles of compounds induced by application of JA and ABA were different. JA exhibited stronger inducing activity for hydroxycinnamic acid amides than ABA, while ABA was more active in tryptophan accumulation. The major hydroxycinnamic acid amides in JA-and A BA-treated leaves were p-coumaroylagmatine and p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyagmatine, respectively. These differences suggested that JA and ABA act in distinct modes. The induction of these compounds was also observed in leaf segments treated with 1 m sorbitol and glucose. These findings suggested that JA and ABA are involved in accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid amides and tryptophan in response to osmotic stress in barley. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 193—202 (2001); received O ctober 19/December 11 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amide 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0193 
 Volume    56 
30Author    ShinpeiO. Hkia, Hideomi Takahashib, Nobuhiro Kuboyamac, Kazuya Koizumic, Hitoshi Kohnob, JackJ S Van Rensend, KoW. Akabayashib, Peter BögeraRequires cookie*
 Title    Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibition by Pyrimidines and Pyridines Substituted with Benzylamino, Methyl and Trifluoromethyl Groups  
 Abstract    The decrease of the num ber of ring nitrogen atoms of 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoro-methyl-l,3,5-triazines on herbicidal activity and inhibition of photosynthetic electron trans­ port (PET) was assayed using thylakoids from Spinacia oleracea or atrazine-resistant Cheno­ podium album. Three 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-l,3,5-triazines, nine pyrimi­ dines with a benzylamino-, methyl-and trifluoromethyl-group, 2-benzylamino-6-methyl-4-trifluoromethyl-pyridine and N-benzyl-S-methyl-S-trifluoromethylaniline were synthesized and assayed. 2-(4-Bromobenzylamino)-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethylpyrimidine exhibited the highest PET inhibitory activity against Spinacia oleracea thylakoids of all compounds tested. The 2-benzylaminopyrimidines and 2-methylpyrimidines having a 4-halobenzylamino group exhibited higher PET inhibition than atrazine and 2-trifluoromethylpyrimidines against Spi­ nacia oleracea thylakoids. These PET inhibitory active compounds also exhibited a strong and similar inhibition both against atrazine-resistant Chenopodium album thylakoids as well as against thylakoids from wild-type Chenopodium. The herbicidal activity of 4-(4-bromoben-zylamino)-2-methyl-6-trifluoromethylpyrimidine was equivalent to that of known herbicides like simetryne, simazine or atrazine. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 203—210 (2001); received January 22 2001 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    PET Inhibitory Activity, Atrazine-Resistant Chenopodium album, 4-Benzylamino-2-methyl-6-trifluoromethylpyrimidines 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0203 
 Volume    56 
31Author    M. Aria Tsoukatou3, Christina Tsitsimpikoub, Constantinos Vagias3, Vassilios Roussis3Requires cookie*
 Title    Chemical Intra-Mediterranean Variation and Insecticidal Activity of Crithmum maritimum  
 Abstract    The chemical composition of the volatile metabolites of Crithmum maritimum harvested from several geographic localities along the M editerranean coasts was studied by GC and GC-MSD. The major oil constituents were found to be dillapiole, y-terpinene, sabinene, limo-nene and ß-phellandrene. The W estern populations were richer in dillapiole, whereas the Southern collections were characterized by increased amounts of thymol methyl ether and y-terpinene. The Italian chemical profiles differentiated by the significant contributions of carvacrol methyl ether and isoterpinolene. The essential oils were also investigated for their insecticidal activity and their repellency against Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) ants and found to possess significant activity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 211—215 (2001); received October 27/December 7 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Crithmum maritimum, Terpenes, Dillapiole, A nt Repellency 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0211 
 Volume    56 
32Author    KhaledY O Rabi, Ahm Ed, M. Galal, Abdel-RahimS. Ibrahim^, FaroukS. El-Feralya, AndrewT. McphailbRequires cookie*
 Title    Microbial Hydroxylation and Reduction of the Diterpene Psiadin  
 Abstract    Psiadin, Microbial Bioconversion, 2a-Hydroxydeoxopsiadin Microbial bioconversion studies conducted on the diterpene psiadin have revealed that it was metabolized by Aspergillus niger (N R R L 2295) to give 2a-hydroxydeoxopsiadin, Cunnin-ghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688a) to give llß-hydroxypsiadin, and Cylind.rocepha.lum aureum (ATCC 12720), Gongronella butleri (ATCC 22822), Kloeckera africana (ATCC 20111), and Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis (ATCC 2628) to yield 7a-hydroxypsiadin. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral data. The structure and rela­ tive stereochemistry of 7a-hydroxypsiadin was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 216—222 (2001); received O ctober 4/November 10 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0216 
 Volume    56 
33Author    KhaledY O RabiRequires cookie*
 Title    Microbial Epoxidation of the Tricyclic Sesquiterpene Presilphiperfolane Angelate Ester  
 Abstract    /November 10, 2000 Microbial Transformation, Mucor ramannianus, (2'/?,3'i?)-(+)-2ß-(2,,3'-epoxyangeloyloxy)-5ß,8ß-dihydroxypresilphiperfolane Microbial transform ation studies on 2ß-angeloyloxy-5ß,8ß-dihydroxypresilphiperfolane have revealed that it was metabolized by a number of microorganisms. Using a standard two-stage ferm entation technique, Mucor ramannianus (ATCC 9628) produced three metabolites. One of them was characterized as the novel metabolite (2'i?,3'i?)-(+)-2ß-(2',3'-epoxyangeloy-loxy)-5ß,8ß-dihydroxypresilphiperfolane on the basis of spectral data. The absolute configu­ ration at both oxirane carbons was confirmed by hydrolysis product of the novel metabolite which is 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 223—227 (2001); received September 14 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0223 
 Volume    56 
34Author    Fumio Matsuda, Hisashi Miyagawa, Tamio UenoRequires cookie*
 Title    Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Induction of (5)-Ar-/?-Coumaroyloctopamine Accumulation by ß-l,3-Glucooligosaccharide Elicitors in Potato Tuber Tissues  
 Abstract    ß-l,3-Glucooligosaccharide, (S^-yV-p-coumaroyloctopamine, Solanum tuberosum Treatment o f potato tuber tissues with ß-l,3-glucooligosaccharide induces accumulation of (S)-/V-p-coumaroyloctopamine (p-CO). We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (R O S) and nitric oxide (N O) in the signal transduction leading to p-C O accumulation. Induc­ tion was suppressed by an N AD PH -oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride, and oxygen radical scavengers. H 20 2 was generated in the tuber tissue within a few minutes of treatment with ß-l,3-glucooligosaccharide. On the other hand, treatment with N O specific scavenger, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and serine protease inhibitor did not inhibit p -CO induction. Our findings suggest that ROS generated by the action o f N A D PH -oxidase play an important role in this system, while NO and serine protease are unlikely to be involved in this process. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 228 (2001); received October 23/Novem ber 27 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0228 
 Volume    56 
35Author    Lidia Polkowska-Kowalczyk, Urszula MaciejewskaRequires cookie*
 Title    The Oxidative Processes Induced in Cell Suspensions of Solanum Species by Culture Filtrate of Phytophthora infestans  
 Abstract    Oxidative R esponse, Phytophthora infestans, Polygenic Resistance Solanum genotypes that differ in the level of polygenic resistance to the oom ycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans were studied for their oxidative response to culture filtrate (CF) of the pathogen. Reactive oxygen species (R O S) production, peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation have been studied in the CF-treated cell suspensions derived from leaves o f the resistant S. nigrum (nonhost) and 5. tuberosum cv. Bzura as well as from the susceptible S. tuberosum cv. Tarpan and clone H-8105. In both the resistant and susceptible cells the CF induced similar processes, but these varied with respect to the kinetics and intensity. In all cells probably the membrane-bound N A D PH oxidase, was responsible for the ROS pro­ duction. This process was more intensive and prolonged in the susceptible cells than in the resistant ones. The CF treatment slightly affected peroxidase activity in all cells studied. Lipid peroxidation that occurred as a consequence of the ROS accumulation was pronounced mainly in the susceptible cells. We suggest that lack o f stringent control o f the oxidative processes and sensitivity to the pathogen toxins may be decisive for limited polygenic resis­ tance in potato. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 235 (2001); received October 25/D ecem ber 21 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0235 
 Volume    56 
36Author    RamalingamG. Ounder3, Narayanan Rajendrana-Requires cookie*
 Title    Transformation Studies of Bacillus thuringiensis crylC Gene into a Nitrogen-Fixing Azospirillum lipoferum  
 Abstract    Transformation, Bacillus thuringiensis, crylC Gene, A zosprillum lipoferum A lepidopteran toxin gene, crylC (pSB607) from entom opathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizaw ai was introduced into nitrogen-fixing A zospirillum lipoferum by transformation. R egeneration of spheroplasts was achieved at 99% with 39% frequency o f regeneration. Transformants were screened on NB kanamycin with ampicillin plates and 4 transformants were selected after ten generations. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence o f a 6 8 kDa protein in the transformants. Studies on utilization of carbon sources indicate that glucose and sucrose are the most favorable carbon sources and 2 % molasses is the cheap alternate carbon source for the better growth of parent A. lipoferum and trans­ formants. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 245 (2001); received April 28/October 2/2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0245 
 Volume    56 
37Author    Xiao Hui, Chen, Chul-Sa Kim, Takehiro Kashiwagi, Shin-Ich Tebayashi, Michio HoriikeRequires cookie*
 Title    Antifeedants against Acusta despesta from the Japanese Cedar, Cryptomeria japonica  
 Abstract    -8 5 0 2 , Japan. Fax: + 8 1 -8 8 -8 6 4 -5 2 1 9 . E-mail: cs-kim@cc.kochi-u.ac.jp A ntifeedant, Cryptom eria japonica, Acusta despesta During our studies on the components in Japanese cedar, Cryptom eria japonica, we found that the crude methanol extract of C. japonica showed intense antifeeding activity against one snail species, A custa despesta, which is well-known as a pest o f many vegetables and crops. The active com ponents in the extract were separated into the hexane and ethyl acetate soluble fractions. From the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction, two norlignans, sequirin-C and agatharesinol, were isolated and identified as the active compounds. Both compounds inhibited feeding behavior o f A. despesta at 30 \iglcm2 and 40 ^g/cm2 concentrations, respec­ tively, when applied by an eggplant leaf or filter paper containing 20 ^1 of 5% sucrose solu­ tion. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 249 (2001); received September 20/Novem ber 6 2000 
  Published    2001 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0249 
 Volume    56 
38Author    M. Tofazzal Islam3, Satoshi Tahara3bRequires cookie*
 Title    Repellent Activity of Estrogenic Compounds toward Zoospores of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Aphanomyces cochlioides  
 Abstract    Screening chemical compounds, we found that a xenoestrogen, bisphenol A , showed potent repellent activity against the zoospores of A phanom yces cochlioides. Based on this finding, we tested a number of androgenic and estrogenic compounds (e.g. testosterone, progesterone, estradiols, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, estriol, pregnenolone, dienestrol etc.) on the motility behavior of A. cochlioides zoospores. Interestingly, most of the estrogenic compounds exhib­ ited potent repellent activity (1 ng/ml or less by the "particle m ethod") toward the motile zoospores of A. cochlioides. We derivatized som e of the estrogens and discussed the relation­ ship between the structure of active m olecules and their repellent activity. Apparently, aro-matization of the A ring with a free hydroxyl group at C-3 position o f a steroidal structure is necessary for higher repellent activity Interestingly, methylation of diethylstilbestrol (D E S) yielded completely different activity i.e. both m ono-and di-methyl ethers o f D ES showed attractant activity. Moreover, the attracted zoospores were encysted and then germinated in the presence of di-methyl ether of DES. The potential usefulness o f this repellent test is discussed for the detection of estrogenic activity o f naturally occurring compounds, and the possible role of phytoestrogens in host/parasite interactions. So far, this will be the first report of repellent activity of estrogenic compounds toward trivial fungal zoospores. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 253—261 (2001); received Novem ber 13/Decem ber 18 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Repellent Activity, Steroidal Hormones, Fungal Zoospore 
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 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0253 
 Volume    56 
39Author    Anna-Carin Bäckman3, Marie Bengtsson3, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlssonb, Lime Liblikasb, Peter Witzgall3Requires cookie*
 Title    Volatiles from Apple (Malus domestica) Eliciting Antennal Responses in Female Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Effect of Plant Injury and Sampling Technique  
 Abstract    The antennal responses o f codling moth females, Cydia pom onella, to volatiles from apple branches with green fruits were recorded by electroantennography coupled to gas chroma­ tography. The antennae strongly responded to 4,8-dimethyl-l,3(£'),7-nonatriene, linalool, ß-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, germacrene D, (Z,£')-a-farnesene, (£ ,£)-a -fa rn esen e and methyl salicylate. These compounds were all present in volatile collections on Porapak Q from both living and cut branches. Analysis by the solid phase microextraction technique (SPM E) showed that the emission of some electrophysiologically active compounds increased after branches had been cut, especially 4,8-dim ethyl-l,3(£'),7-nonatriene, linalool and (E .E)-a-farnesene. The identification o f apple volatiles eliciting antennal responses is the first step towards the identification of compounds mediating host-finding and oviposition in codling moth females. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 262 (2001); received November 13/December 18 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Host Plant Volatiles, Malus domestica, Cydia pom onella 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0262.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0262 
 Volume    56 
40Author    O. Rlando, M. Uñoz3, RaúlC. Peñab, Enrique Ureta, GloriaM. Ontenegro0, B. Arbara, N. TimmermanncRequires cookie*
 Title    Propolis from Chilean Matorral Hives  
 Abstract    Viscidone (0.5%), vanillin, 3',4'-(m ethylendioxy)acetophenone, 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenz-aldehyde, cinnamic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymethyl ester were isolated from propolis o f hives from Cuncumen. This is the first report on propolis composition o f an arid and a Mediterranean type climate area. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56c, 269 (2001); received September 8/N ovem ber 16 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Propolis, Structure Elucidation, Plant Sources 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/56/ZNC-2001-56c-0269.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-2001-56c-0269 
 Volume    56 
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