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1994[X]
101Author    M. Kubera3, M. Bubak-Satora3, V. Holanb, W. Krolc, A. Basta-Kaim3, A. Roman3, A. Skowron-Cendrzak3, J. ShanidRequires cookie*
 Title    Modulation of Cell-Mediated Immunity by Lithium Chloride  
 Abstract    Immunomodulation of cell-mediated immunity was studied in mice treated with either lithium chloride (LiCl), anti-CD 8 monoclonal antibody or their combination. While 6-day LiCl treatment decreased the ability of their splenocytes to induce a local graft-vm'us-host reaction -anti-CD 8 abolished this effect. The proliferative response of spleen cells from those three groups of mice to concanavalin A stimulation in vitro was significantly increased. The natural killer (NK) cell toxicity of the mice was decreased by over 43% after the 6-day LiCl treatment, but was x2.5 higher then the control value after a longer 21-d treatment. These results indicate that the immunomodulatory capacity of lithium is dependent on the type of cell population studied, and on the schedule of administration. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 679 (1994); received June 6/ 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Lithium Chloride, GVH Reaction, Mitogen Stimulation, NK Cells 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0679.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0679 
 Volume    49 
102Author    Sedat Imre, Sidika Ertürk, Zeliha ImreRequires cookie*
 Title    D igitalis cariensis  
 Abstract    Digitalis cariensis, Scrophulariaceae, Anthraquinones, (o-Hydroxydigitoemodin, co-Hydroxyziganein-l-methyl ether Two new minor anthraquinones, oo-hydroxydigitoemo-din (1) and to-hydroxyziganein-1-methyl ether (4), have been isolated from Digitalis cariensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and 1 was also confirmed by synthesis. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 684 (1994); received April 25 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0684_n 
 Volume    49 
103Author    Marí, AmparoB. Lázquez, Salvador Máñez, Marí, Carmen Zafra-PoloRequires cookie*
 Title    Thymus webbianus Rouy  
 Abstract    Thymus webbianus, Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Lamiaceae Seven different flavonoids from the aerial parts of Thymus webbianus were isolated. They were identified by UV spectra, TLC and HPLC-DAD as luteolin, api­ genin, eryodictiol, naringenin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside. Other phenolics characterized by H PLC-DAD analysis were: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, syringic, p-coumaric and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 687 (1994); received May 20/ 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0687_n 
 Volume    49 
104Author    Eckhard Wollenweber, George YatskievychRequires cookie*
 Title    Fouquieria splendens  
 Abstract    Fouquieria splendens, Fouquieriaceae, Lipophilic Exudate, Flavonoid Aglycones Leaves and stems of Fouquieria splendens were found to accumulate flavonoid aglycones on their surfaces. Three flavones and five flavonols have been identified. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 689 (1994); received March 25 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0689_n 
 Volume    49 
105Author    H. Schempp, H. Ulrich, E. F. ElstnerRequires cookie*
 Title    Stereospecific Reduction of /?(+)-Thioctic Acid by Porcine H eart Lipoamide Dehydrogenase/Diaphorase  
 Abstract    Thioctic Acid, Lipoic Acid, Diaphorase, Stereospecificity i?(+)-thioctic acid is the naturally occurring cofactor in a-ketoacid dehydrogenases. We show both photo­ metrically by NADH + FL oxidation and by HPLC prod­ uct analysis that this enantiomer is rapidly reduced by N A D H +H + catalyzed by porcine heart lipoamide de-hydrogenase/diaphorase. The racemate exhibits approxi­ mately 40% activity as compared to the R (+) form while the S (-) enantiomer photometrically shows little activity and yields no detectable reduced lipoic acid. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 691—6 (1994); received April 25 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0691_n 
 Volume    49 
106Author    T. Shimizu, N. TakedaRequires cookie*
 Title    Arom atic Amino Acid and Amine Levels in the Hemolymph of Parasitized and Unparasitized Larvae of M ythim na separata  
 Abstract    The levels of aromatic amino acids and amines in the hemolymph of larvae of the common armyworm, My­ thimna separata, were analyzed after parasitization by the braconid wasp, Apanteles kariyai. Methyldopa, homovanillic acid, tryptophan and tyrosine remained unchanged in unparasitized and parasitized larvae. Dop­ amine and DOPA showed characteristic changes at pupation that were associated with the hardening and darkening of the cuticle; Dopamine in the hemolymph of unparasitized last instar larvae increased before pu­ pation. Large increases in kynurenine and octopamine were detected in parasitized larvae. The increased level of octopamine in the hemolymph may be stress related. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 693—69 (1994); received April 5 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Aromatic Amino Acid, Aromatic Amine, Hemolymph, Mythimna separata, Apanteles kariyai 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0693_n 
 Volume    49 
107Author    M. Jung, H. D. Zinsmeister, H. GeigerRequires cookie*
 Title    Atrichum undulatum and Polytrichum formosum  
 Abstract    Dedicated to Professor Robert Hegnauer, Leiden, on the occasion o f his 75th birthday Mosses, Polytrichaceae, 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroxycoumarin-5-ß-glucopyranoside Derivatives, 5,7,8-Trihydroxycoumarin-5-ß-glucopyranoside Derivatives, Daphnin Atrichum undulatum as well as Polytrichum formosum are containing each six different coumarin glycosides of which three are common to both species. From the nine different glycosides eight are new natural compounds. The structures have been elucidated spectro­ scopically. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 697—702 (1994); received July 7 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0697 
 Volume    49 
108Author    Jingkai Ding, Yu Xuejian, Wu Yu, Zhihui Ding, Zonglian Chen, Nanao Hayashi, Hisasi KomaeRequires cookie*
 Title    (Asarum petelotii, Elsholtzia souliei, Eupatorium adenophorum, Micromeria biflora) in Yunnan  
 Abstract    The volatile components of the essential oils of four Chinese medicinal Plants (Micromeria biflora, Elsholtzia souliei, Eupatorium adenophorum, Asarum petelotii) were investigated by GC and GC-MS. Large amounts of terpenes (geranial, naginataketone, p-cymene, ß-himacha-lene), or phenol ethers (apiole, elemicin, l,2,3,4-tetramethoxy-5-allyl-benzene) were iden­ tified in the oils. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 703 (1994); received March 21 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Medicinal Plants, Essential Oil, Terpene, Phenol Ether, Aromatic Component 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0703 
 Volume    49 
109Author    Kimiaki Yamano, Haruhisa ShirahamaRequires cookie*
 Title    Clitocybe acromelalga  
 Abstract    A new piperidine amino acid, 2,4,5-piperidinetricarboxylic acid (11) was isolated from the poisonous mushroom, Clitocybe acromelalga. The structure determination and its biogenetic potential are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 707 (1994); received July 7/August 15 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Clitocybe acromelalga, Toadstool, Piperidine Amino Acid, 2, 4, 5-Piperidinetricarboxylic Acid, Biogenesis 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0707 
 Volume    49 
110Author    Josep Serra Bonvehf, FrancescVentura CollRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenolic Composition of Propolis from China and from South America  
 Abstract    Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds were determined in 15 samples of propolis originating from China, from Brazil, and from Uruguay. A total of 24 compounds were identified using mainly HPLC and a few other analytical methods. The most abundant com­ pounds found were benzoic acid and benzaldehyde derivatives, flavones, flavonols. and flava-nones. 80% of the samples contained at least 22 g/100 g of flavonoids, primarily acacetin, isorhamnetin, apigenin, and pinocembrin. The flavonoid patterns were sufficiently distinctive to permit discrimination between propolis from China, from Uruguay, and from Brazil. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 712 (1994); received March 18/August 9 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Propolis, China, South America, Phenolic Constituents, Flavonoids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/49/ZNC-1994-49c-0712.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0712 
 Volume    49 
111Author    Margret Bockers, Christiane Rivero, Brigitte Thiede, Thomas Jankowski, Burkhard SchmidtRequires cookie*
 Title    Uptake, Translocation, and Metabolism of 3,4-Dichloroaniline in Soybean and Wheat Plants  
 Abstract    Glycine max, Triticum aestivum, 3,4-Dichloroaniline, Metabolism, Translocation The roots of 13-day-old soybean (Glycine max L.) and 7-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hydroponic plants were exposed to [14C]-3,4-dichloroaniline (1.0 and 0.4 mg/1 (6.2 and 2.5 | j .m) , respectively) and harvested after 48/120 h (soybean) and 72 h (wheat). Both species metabolized the xenobiotic almost quantitatively to N-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,4-dichloroani-line, N-malonyl-3,4-dichloroaniline, 6'-0-malonyl-N-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-3,4-dichloroani-line and non-extractable residues. In the soybean experiments 58.8 (48 h) and 54.6% (120 h) of the applied radioactivity were found in the nutrient; this fraction consisted primarily of N-malonyl-3,4-dichloroaniline. 37.3/24.1% (48/120 h) were detected in the plants. In the soybeans, 36.2 and 52.7% (48/120 h) of the absorbed 14C were translocated, mainly into hypocotyls, primary and secondary leaves. After 120 h, the main metabolite was N-malonyl-3,4-dichloroaniline (38.5%); considerable levels of this metabolite accumulated in the pri­ mary and secondary leaves (10.4 and 10.4%). The glucosides were mainly found in the roots of the soybean plants. Totals of 23.5 and 35.1% (48/120 h) were transformed to non-extract­ able residues. In wheat, 78.3% of the applied 3,4-dichloroaniline was absorbed after 72 h. This fraction was partially translocated to the leaves, but most of the residues remained in the roots (90.3% of absorbed 14C). In wheat, a total of 45.6% was transformed to non-extractable residues. The soluble radioactivity in the roots consisted of nearly equal amounts of the glucosides and the N-malonyl conjugate. The processes observed in soybean and wheat roots resembled those of the respective cell suspension cultures published previously. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 719 (1994); received August 1/September 7 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0719 
 Volume    49 
112Author    Kerstin Kosch3, Andreas Jacobi3, Martin Parniskeb, Dietrich Werner3, Peter Müller3Requires cookie*
 Title    Bradyrhizobium japonicum Exopolysaccharide Mutant is Determined by the Genotype of the Host Plant  
 Abstract    The deletion mutant Bradyrhizobium japonicum AP22 produces a structurally altered exo­ polysaccharide. The nodulation of two cultivars each of Glycine max and Glycine soja, and cultivars of Macroptilium atropurpureum and Vigna radiata, infected with this mutant was examined in order to analyze the role of the exopolysaccharide in the infection process of plants with a determinate nodule type. All host plants analyzed exhibited delayed nodulation and formed fewer nodules per plant. The extent of the impairments depended on the geno­ type of the host plant. Morphological studies confirmed these results. In V radiata later steps in nodule development proceeded without further disturbances, whereas with G. soja PI 407287 minor changes were detected. In contrast, the inoculation of G. soja PI 468397 and M. atropurpureum lead to the formation of nodules most of which were not infected by Bradyrhizobium japonicum AP22 (In f-). However, on M. atropurpureum at least some effec­ tive nitrogen-fixing nodules developed. Such nodules did not emerge from G. soja PI 468397. Inf~ nodules were arrested in an early stage of nodule development, and symptoms of plant defense responses were observed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 727 (1994); received August 3 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Bradyrhizobium, Exopolysaccharides, Nodulation, Determinate Nodule Type, Soybean 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0727 
 Volume    49 
113Author    Karl Stich3, H. Eidrun, H. Albw Irtha, Friedrich Wurst3, G. Ert, Forkm AnnbRequires cookie*
 Title    Formation of 6'-Deoxychalcone 4'-Glucosides by Enzyme Extracts from Petals of Dahlia variabilis  
 Abstract    Dahlia variabilis, UDP-Glucose: 6 '-Deoxychalcone 4'-0-Glucosyltransferase, Isoliquiritigenin, Butein, Chalcone Yellow colouration of Dahlia variabilis is mainly provided by isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucoside and butein 4'-glucoside. Incubation of petal extracts with uridin 5'-diphosphoglucose and isoliquiritigenin or butein led to the formation of one product which was identified as the respective 6 '-deoxychalcone 4'-glucoside. Glucosylation of hydroxyl groups in other positions was not observed. Naringenin chalcone and eriodictyol chalcone were not accepted as sub­ strates. The 4'-glucosylation of isoliquiritigenin and butein showed a broad pH optimum ranging from pH 7 to 8 and was stimulated by Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+ clearly reduced the activity of the enzyme. The apparent K m values for UDP-glucose, isoliquiritigenin and butein were 90, 26 and 276 [xm respectively. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 737—741 (1994); received July 18/September 7 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0737 
 Volume    49 
114Author    M. Ayum, N. Agano, A. K. Ik, H. Achiya, H. Iroshi AshiharaRequires cookie*
 Title    Phosphate Starvation and a Glycolytic Bypass Catalyzed by Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in Suspension-Cultured Catharanthus roseus Cells  
 Abstract    Pathways involved in the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate, the final step in glycolysis, were investigated after transfer of stationary-phase cells from suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus to fresh complete or phosphate (Pi)-deficient Linsmaier and Skoog medium. In addition to pyruvate kinase (PK). enzymes that can function in an alterna­ tive pathway, namely, PEP carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme, were present in significant amounts in C. roseus cells. The activity of PEPC in Pi-starved cells was more than twice that in cells in the complete medium (Pi-fed cells), while that of PK in Pi-starved cells was lower than that in Pi-fed cells. No significant differences were observed in the levels of NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme between these two types of cell. At cytosolic pH, the K m value of PEP (45 |i m) for PEPC was lower than that for PK (100 (.i m) . The activity of PEPC was inhibited by malate, citrate, aspartate and ATP. The activity of PK was also inhibited by ATP, but to a lesser extent. The cellular levels of PEP, adenylates and malate, which are substrates and effectors of PK and PEPC, in Pi-fed and Pi-starved cells suggest that the contribution of PEPC to the metabolism of PEP increased in Pi-starved cells in vivo. Evidence for operation of a bypass from malate to pyruvate in vivo was supported by the rapid release of 1 4 C 0 2 from organic compounds derived from fixed N aH 1 4 C 0 3 and from [4-14C]malate. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 742—750 (1994); received June 20/August 25 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Madagascar Periwinkle, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, Pyruvate Kinase Glycolysis, Phosphate Starvation 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0742 
 Volume    49 
115Author    G. Alina Lazarova, Tam Otsu, O. Otaki, Kunio Isono, H. Ironao, K. AtaokaRequires cookie*
 Title    Phototropism in Yeast: A New Phenomenon to Explore Blue Light-Induced Responses  
 Abstract    Although yeasts have been intensively investigated in photobiology, directional response of yeast growth to light has never been observed. The present data demonstrate for the first time phototropism in yeast, the basidiomycetous yeast Sporobolomyces salmonicolor. The effective spectral band is blue light -suggesting that a blue-light receptor similar to that in other plants is involved in yeast photophysiology. Further studies on yeast phototropism could help identification of the photoreceptor and throw new light on the mechanisms of signal transduction and response. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 751—756 (1994); received July 19 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Phototropism, Yeast, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, Blue Light 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0751 
 Volume    49 
116Author    GudrunM. Eya, W. Olfgang, K. OwallikRequires cookie*
 Title    Involvement of Two Different Photoreceptors in the Light Regulation of Glutamine Synthetase Activity in a Chlorophyll-Free Chlorella Mutant  
 Abstract    B lue/U V Photoreceptor, Red Light Photoreceptor, Glutamine Synthetase, Light Regulation, Chlorella Pigment Mutant Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) activity o f a non-photosynthetic mutant o f Chlorella kessleri is markedly enhanced under blue and slightly increased under red light. In both cases, the effect is largest after 6 h of irradiation. In blue light, saturation is reached at about 10 ^E m~2 s -1; in red light, it is not even indicated at 62 ^iE m -2 s _1. Semilogarithmic plots of both intensity dependencies reveal different slopes, indicating envolvem ent of two separate photoreceptors. This feature is supported by different effects of pulse irradiation: The response to 15 min o f red light irradiation (X.max 650 nm) increases in subsequent darkness. It reaches the same value as in continuous light after 6 h. The re­ sponse to 15 min of blue light irradiation (X.max 441 nm) increases also in subsequent darkness. However, after 6 h it reaches only 30% o f the value obtained by continuous irradiation. It is concluded that, glutamine synthetase of Chlorella is controlled by two different photo­ receptors both independent of photosynthesis. There is evidence of two forms o f glutamine synthetase, the intracellular distribution and specific light regulations of these are discussed. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 757—7 (1994); received July 22/September 8 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0757 
 Volume    49 
117Author    D. Ieter, M. Üller-EnochRequires cookie*
 Title    Product Autofluorescence Activation in the Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase System  
 Abstract    The relative increase of the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and the 6,7-dimethoxycouma-rin-O-demethylase activities were found 93 and 236% using a reconstituted cytochrome P4502B 1 :NADPH-P450 reductase system by adding to the reaction mixtures their own products. The assays were irradiated during the reactions with the excitation wavelength maximum of their products umbelliferone (X.E = 365 nm) or scopoletin (XE = 398 nm), re­ spectively. Addition of the products to the reaction mixtures without irradiation (dark reac­ tion) had no activating effect on the specific activities of the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase or the 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin-O-demethylase. The relative increase of the specific activities is dependent on the excitation light intensities and was at maximum when the light intensity at the sample cuvette was 0.4 mW/cm2. The activation energies of the P 4502B 1-dependent 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylation reaction obtained from Arrhenius plots with and without added umbelliferone and irradia­ tion with XE = 365 nm are 14.7 kJ/mol and 33.5 kJ/mol, respectively, in the temperature range of 27-37 °C. The irradiation energy of the fluorescent product umbelliferone change the catalytic mechanism, which has a two times lower activation energy in the presence of the irradiated product umbelliferone. Umbelliferone and scopoletin have highest fluorescence intensities in the wavelength range of the blue light (440-480 nm). The photochemical action spectrum of the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase of the P4502B 1:reductase system is also found to be in the wavelength range of 420-470 nm. No activation effect was seen with irradiating light lower than 400 nm. Obvi­ ously the fluorescence light of the products are due for the extremely high activation effect. This is the first report that the products umbelliferone and scopoletin are photoreceptors and phototransducers. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 763—771 (1994); received August 1/September 2 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Cytochrome P450, Blue Light Activation, Photoreceptor-Phototransducer, Umbelliferone, Scopoletin 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0763 
 Volume    49 
118Author    U. Ta, B. Ecker, TimmA., O. Lov SternerRequires cookie*
 Title    A Novel Halogenated Compound Possessing Antibiotic and Cytotoxic Activities Isolated from the Fungus Resinicium pinicola (J. Erikss.) Erikss. & Hjortst  
 Abstract    Fungus, Resinicium pinicola, Antibiotic, Cytotoxic, Chlorinated Pinicoloform, a novel unbranched acyclic compound containing a trichloromethyl group, has been isolated from extracts of the mycelia of the Basidiomycete Resinicium pinicola. It was isolated because of its ability to induce morphological and physiological differentiation of mammalian cells, although it also exhibits antibiotic and cytotoxic activities. The structure of pinicoloform was determined by spectroscopic methods. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 772—774 (1994); received June 27 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0772 
 Volume    49 
119Author    P. Eter, B. Öger, R. Osw, M. IllerRequires cookie*
 Title    Protoporphyrin Accumulation Induced by Peroxidizing Herbicides is Counteracted by Safeners  
 Abstract    A number of safeners like naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid anhydride (naphthalic anhy­ dride) or dichloroacetyl-hexahydro-3,3,8-a-trimethylpyrrolo-[l ,2 a]-pyrimidine-6-(2 H)-one (BAS 145138) drastically decreased the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX induced by a peroxidative cyclic imide (chlorophthalim, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthal-imide), or p-nitrodiphenyl ether (acifluorfen methyl, 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoicmethylester). This effect was observed with etiolated maize and cress seedlings during a 16-h illumination period with these herbicides and 0.1 to 1 mM safener present. The safeners did not affect the inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the target enzyme of peroxidative herbicides. Mixed function oxidase inhibitors did not influence this safening effect. A microsome preparation from safener-treated maize seedlings did neither degrade protoporphyrin IX nor protoporphyrinogen IX. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 775—780 (1994); received October 13 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Peroxidizing Herbicides, Safeners, Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation, Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase, Mixed Function Oxidase 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0775 
 Volume    49 
120Author    Gerhard Leubner, -M Etzger, N. Ikolaus, A. M. RheinRequires cookie*
 Title    Phenylalanine Analogues: Potent Inhibitors of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Are Weak Inhibitors of Phenylalanine-tRNA Synthetases  
 Abstract    Phenylalanine Analogues, Inhibitors, Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase, Phenylalanine-tRNA Synthetase (l-Amino-2-phenylethyl)phosphonic acid (APEP), (l-amino-2-phenylethyl)phosphonous acid (APEPi), a-aminooxy-ß-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) and several other phenylalanine analogues are potent inhibitors of (S)-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in vitro and in vivo. The ability of these compounds to inhibit (S)-phenylalanine-tRNA synthetases (PRSs) from wheat germ, soybean, and baker's yeast has been investigated and compared to the inhibition of PAL. APEP and APEPi were found to inhibit the tRNAphe-aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by the three PRSs studied in vitro in a competitive manner with respect to (5)-phenylalanine. (tf)-APEP inhibits the PRSs with apparent values of 144 jam for wheat germ (app. K m for (S)-phe 5.2 |x m) , 130 |x m for soybean (app. K m for (S)-phe 0.9 ^i m) , and 1096 |x m for baker's yeast (app. K m for (S)-phe 5.5 |x m) . TTie apparent K, values for (/?)-APEPi are 315 ^ x m , 160 |x m , and 117 |x m , respectively. APEP and APEPi inhibit the ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reactions catalyzed by the PRSs from wheat germ and baker's yeast, but they are not activated and do not serve as substrates in these reactions. AOPP has no affinity to any of the three PRSs, whereas it is a potent inhibitor of PAL. In light of our in vitro results with PRSs from different sources it appears unlikely that the PAL inhibitors we have studied have any significant inhibitory effect on this essential step in protein synthesis in vivo. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49c, 781—790 (1994); received July 15 1994 
  Published    1994 
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 Identifier    ZNC-1994-49c-0781 
 Volume    49 
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