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1Author    Hanka Moryson, Danuta Bauman, Wojciech Hilczer, Stanislaw HoffmannRequires cookie*
 Title    Molecular Orientation in Uniaxial Liquid Crystal Phases as Studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance  
 Abstract    The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of 3/3-doxyl-5a:-cholestane dissolved in five liquid crystals have been recorded as a function of temperature in the isotropic and mesogenic phases. From these spectra the order parameter (P2) has been determined. The results have been com-pared with the data obtained from the optical birefringence measurements and from the polarized absorption spectra of the dichroic dye dissolved in liquid crystal host. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54a, 299—304 (1999); received March 31 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystal, EPR, Order Parameter 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/54/ZNA-1999-54a-0299.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1999-54a-0299 
 Volume    54 
2Author    K. H. Schweikert, F. NoackRequires cookie*
 Abstract    The frequency dependence of the longitudinal proton spin relaxation time Tx was measured by field-cycling and standard NMR techniques in the nematic, smectic and reentrant nematic mesophases of the reentrant liquid crystal 6OCB-8OCB. The results clearly demonstrate that, in contrast to conclusions reported in the literature, the underlying relaxation mechanisms are the same for the nematic and reentrant nematic order, but different in the nematic and smectic phase. In particular, at low frequencies the nematic and reentrant samples reveal a square-root dispersion profile (T, ~ v1 2) characteristic for nematic director fluctuations, whereas the smectic samples show a dissimilar and only very narrow dispersion step. It can be attributed to a linear relaxation time increase (Tx ~ v1) expected for smectic-type order fluctuations. The experimental data are described and discussed in terms of four molecular processes, namely nematic or smectic order fluctuations, self-diffusion, rotational motions, and a resonant proton nitrogen coupling. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 597 (1989); received April 19 1989 
  Published    1989 
  Keywords    Spin relaxation Field-cycling, Liquid crystals, Reentrant nematic 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/44/ZNA-1989-44a-0597.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1989-44a-0597 
 Volume    44 
3Author    V. Vill, J. ThiemRequires cookie*
 Title    Flüssigkristalle mit monosubstituierten alicyclischen und heteroalicyclischen Ringen Liquid Crystals Derived from Mono-Substituted Alicyclic and Heteroalicyclic Rings  
 Abstract    Twenty two liquid crystalline mono-substituted cyclopentanes and cyclohexanes including their oxygen analogues were prepard and studied. Smectic phases with clearing temperatures 5^80 °C were observed, and these do not differ considerably between the esters of the more flexible five-mem-bered ring derivatives and those of the conformationally more rigid six-membered rings. In case of the latter, decreasing clearing points ar observed with increasing ratios of the axial conformation (static conformational effect). Altogether rather low clearing points are observed, which may be interpreted by a dynamic conformational effect owing to which fast ring inversion causes the compounds to appear in a bulkier shape, and this results in a disadvantageous packing in the mesophase. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 45a, 1345—1348 (1990); eingegangen am 21. Oktober 1990 
  Published    1990 
  Keywords    Alicyclic rings, Liquid crystals, Conformation, Oxygen heterocycles 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/45/ZNA-1990-45a-1345.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1990-45a-1345 
 Volume    45 
4Author    S. U. Rban, T. Briickert, A. W. ÜrflingerRequires cookie*
 Title    Dielectric Studies on Liquid Crystals under High Pressure: VI. Low Frequency Relaxation Process in the Nematic and Smectic A Phase of 4-n-Octyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (8 CB)  
 Abstract    Dielectric relaxation studies of 4-n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8 CB) were performed in the pressure range 0 .1 -1 2 0 M Pa, the frequency range 1 k H z -1 3 M Hz and the temperature range 2 9 5-331 K. The dielectric behaviour of 8C B in the nematic phase is similar to that of 5CB, 6C B and 7CB. In particular, the activation enthalpy decreases with increasing pressure and the activation volume decreases with increasing temperature in the nematic phase. In the smectic A phase of 8CB both these parameters are markedly lower and show opposite pressure and temperature dependencies. We tentatively interpret these effects as a result of breaking of the dipole-dipole correlations which manifests itself differently in these liquid crystalline phases. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49a, 552 (1994); received March 5 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Dielectric relaxation, High pressure, Liquid crystals, Activation quantities 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/49/ZNA-1994-49a-0552.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1994-49a-0552 
 Volume    49 
5Author    I. D. Ierking1, F. G. Ießelm Ann1, P. Zugenm, H. R2, H. Z. Aschke2, W. Kuczynski3Requires cookie*
 Title    The Origin of the Helical Twist Inversion in Single Component Cholesteric Liquid Crystals  
 Abstract    The cholesteric twist inversion by temperature variation o f a single com ponent thermotropic liquid crystalline system was experimentally investigated and is explained by the partial twisting power model, evaluating the temperature dependent pitch o f five different configurations of a benzoic acid biphenyl ester with two chiral centers. The temperature dependence o f the twisting power and the cholesteric pitch for several stereoisomeric com pounds can in first approximation be predicted by the partial twisting powers of the individual chiral centers determined from the partially racemic configurations. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 49a, 1081—1086 (1994); received August 12 1994 
  Published    1994 
  Keywords    Liquid crystal, Chirality, Cholesteric mesophase, Twist inversion 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/49/ZNA-1994-49a-1081.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1994-49a-1081 
 Volume    49 
6Author    Christina Papenfußa, Jozsef Verhásb, Wolfgang MuschikaRequires cookie*
 Abstract    A continuum theory of a biaxial nematic phase in liquid crystals is presented. The liquid crys­ talline ordering is described by a field of three unit vectors. Because these are macroscopic directors, the present approach is a generalization of the Ericksen-Leslie theory to biaxial nematics. The applied tools from nonequilibrium thermodynamics are classical Linear Irreversible Thermodynam­ ics and Gyarmati's variational principle. Onsager reci­ procity relations; Gyarmati's variational principle. A S im p lifie d T h e rm o d y n a m ic T h e o r y f o r B ia x ia l N e m a tic s 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50a, 795—804 (1995); received June 3 1994 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Liquid crystals, biaxial nematics, Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/50/ZNA-1995-50a-0795.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1995-50a-0795 
 Volume    50 
7Author    Heidrun Amm, Maren Grigutsch, Ralf StannariusRequires cookie*
 Title    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Electroconvection in Nematics  
 Abstract    We investigate electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals by means of optical microscopy. Time resolved optical images are used to study the director dynamics. For the first time we present instant images in the dielectric regime. A numerical simulation of the optical transmission patterns is performed on the basis of Fermat's principle. In the instant images of dielectric rolls, the periodicity of the observed optical pattern is equal to the wavelength Ao of the convection rolls. The well known low contrast 'stationary' optical texture observed in conventional experiments results from time averaging of these instant images; its wavelength is Ao/2. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 117—126 (1998); received December 10 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Pattern Formation, Electrohydrodynamic Instability, Optical Microscopy 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0117.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0117 
 Volume    53 
8Author    S. Urban, B. Gestblom, R. Dąbrowski, H. KresseRequires cookie*
 Title    Dielectric Studies of a Substance with Negative Dielectric Anisotropy  
 Abstract    The results of dielectric studies of 6BAP(F) (l-[4-(hexylbicyclo[2,2,2]octyl]-2-(3-fluoro-4-methoxy-phenyl)ethane) in the nematic and isotropic phases are presented. The substance has a negative dielec-tric anisotropy. By applying two experimental techniques, using a network analyzer and time domain spectrometer (TDS), the two main relaxation processes, connected with the molecular reorientation around the short and long axes, respectively, were resolved in the phases studied. The activation bar-riers hindering the motions were obtained. By extrapolation of the longitudinal and transverse relaxa-tion times from the isotropic to the nematic phase the retardation factors, and g x , and the nematic po-tential versus temperature could be calculated. These are discussed together with the order parameter S obtained from the refractive index, and are compared with the predictions of the mean-field theories. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 134—140 (1998); received February 20 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Dielectric Anisotropy, Dielectric Relaxation, Retardation Factors 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0134.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0134 
 Volume    53 
9Author    A. WiirflingerRequires cookie*
 Title    Nematic Potential and Order Parameter Determined from Dielectric Measurements  
 Abstract    The Maier-Saupe theory is employed in order to calculate order parameters S from the nematic po-tential q. It is found that one of the basic assumptions of the Maier-Saupe theory, q ~S, is approximate-ly fulfilled. The relation between q and S is analysed for various state changes. Previously reported find-ings for 7 PCH that q ~S, not fulfilled along isochoric changes, can be explained by taking into account the pressure and temperature dependences of q. The procedure described in this paper allows to treat experimental data for the nematic potential in a unique way, without being affected by inadequacies of experimentally determined order parameters. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 141—144 (1998); received February 11 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, High Pressure, Nematic Potential, Dielectric Relaxation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0141.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0141 
 Volume    53 
10Author    Lucia Calucci, Claudia Forte, Marco Geppi, CarloAlberto VeraciniRequires cookie*
 Title    Dynamics of Liquid Crystals by Means of 2 H-NMR: a Comparison between 4,4'-bis(hexyloxy)azoxybenzene and the Derivative Pd(II) Complex AZPAC  
 Abstract    In the present work we report a molecular dynamics investigation of the two mesogens 4,4'-bis(hexyloxy)azoxybenzene (HL) and its Pd(II) acetylacetonate derivative Azpac in their nematic phases. Deuterium Zeeman and quadrupolar spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured at 46.04 MHz on two isotopomers of Azpac (Azpac-d 4 and Azpac-c/ 26 > deuteriated on the aromatic core and on the alkoxy chains, respectively) and on HL-d 4 , an isotopomer of HL partially deuteri-ated on the aromatic core, by means of the Wimperis pulse sequence. The spectral densities obtained from the measured relaxation times are discussed in terms of internal and overall molecular motions. A small step rotational diffusion model for the overall molecular motions, superimposed on a free rotational model for internal motions, allowed diffusion coefficients for molecular spinning and tumbling and for phenyl ring rotations to be derived for HL; the same models were used in describing the dynamics of Azpac. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 427—435 (1998); received October 31 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Deuterium Relaxation, Molecular Dynamics, Metallomesogens, NMR 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0427.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0427 
 Volume    53 
11Author    A. Würflinger, S. UrbanRequires cookie*
 Title    Relations between Nematic Potential and Order Parameters (P 2 ) and (P 4 >  
 Abstract    The Maier-Saupe theory is employed in order to calculate order parameters (P 2), (P 4) from the nema-tic potential q. The relation between <r=q/(RT) and S = (P 2) corresponds well with a recently establis-hed formula by Kalmykov. The relation between the order parameters is in accordance with the analy-tic expression (P 4)=5/l (P 2) 2 proposed by Zanonni, but deviates significantly from the Faber model, according to which log (P 4)=(10/3) log (P 2). Experimental results for 5 CB obtained from Raman mea-surements, however, are in better agreement with the Faber model. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 883—886 (1998); received September 12 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Nematic Potential, Order Parameters 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0883.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0883 
 Volume    53 
12Author    A. Kapanowski, K. SokalskiRequires cookie*
 Title    Elastic Constants of Binary Liquid Crystalline Mixtures  
 Abstract    Microscopic expressions for the elastic constants of binary liquid crystalline mixtures composed of short rigid uniaxial molecules are derived in the thermodynamic limit at small distorsions and a small density. Uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases are considered. The expressions involve the one-particle distribution functions and the potential energy of two-body short-range interactions. The theory is used to calculate the phase diagram of a mixture of rigid prolate and oblate molecules. The concentration dependence of the order parameters and the elastic constants are obtained. The possibility of phase separation is not investigated. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53a, 963—976 (1998); received September 24 1998 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Nematics, Elastic Constants, Mixtures 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/53/ZNA-1998-53a-0963.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1998-53a-0963 
 Volume    53 
13Author    M. Massalska-Arodź, A. Würflinger, D. BüsingRequires cookie*
 Title    High-pressure DTA Studies of the Phase Behaviors of 4-n -butyl-thiocyanobiphenyl (4TCB) and 4-w-pentyl-4'-n-phenyl-cyanocyclohexane (5HCP)  
 Abstract    DTA measurements of 4-/i-butyl-thiocyanobiphenyl (4TCB) and/?-cyano-/?'-pentylphenyl-cyclohex-ane (5HCP) have been performed in the temperature range 220 K-390 K and pressures up to 400 MPa. For 4TCP a transition from a crystalline to a liquid crystal phase (probably smectic E) could be detect-ed at higher pressures > 90 MPa. The pressure dependence of the transition temperature has been estab-lished. At pressures lower than 88.7 MPa no transition of SmE into a crystal or into a glass has been found. For 5HCP only the melting curve was observed, in contrast to 5PCH, which displays a liquid crystalline nematic phase. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 54a, 675—678 (1999); received November 5 1999 
  Published    1999 
  Keywords    DTA, High Pressures, Phase Transitions, Liquid Crystals 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/54/ZNA-1999-54a-0675.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1999-54a-0675 
 Volume    54 
14Author    H. Schmalfuss, W. Weissflog, A. Würflinger3, S. Masberg3, G. M. Schneider3Requires cookie*
 Title    Thermodynamic Measurements on Selected Liquid Crystals at Normal and Elevated Pressures  
 Abstract    Densities have been determined for two 5-n-alkyl-2-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)-l,3-dioxanes (6DBT, 10DBT), 4-n-tetradecyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (14CB), 4-n-octyl-4'-thiocyanatobiphenyl (8BT) and two laterally aryl-branched mesogens 4-cyanobenzyl 5-(4-n-octyloxybenzoyloxy)-2-undecyloxybenzoate (4CNOUB), 3-cyanobenzyl 2,5-bis(4-n-octyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoate (3CN-BOB). The densities have been measured in the isotropic, nematic (only 3CNBOB) and smectic phases with a vibrating tube densimeter. The densities decrease with increasing alkyl chain length within a homologous series. Furthermore the enthalpy changes accompanying the phase transitions have been determined by DSC. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 56a, 262—266 (2001); received December 5 2000 
  Published    2001 
  Keywords    Specific Volumes, Density, DSC, Liquid Crystals, Thermodynamics 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/56/ZNA-2001-56a-0262.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-2001-56a-0262 
 Volume    56 
15Author    Marco Cereghetti, Hanspeter ScherrerRequires cookie*
 Title    Arthur Boiler  
 Abstract    The synthesis and mesomorphic properties of four classes of cyano-substituted diphenyl -and biphenylyl-pyrimidines are reported. The new compounds are colourless, chemically and photochemically stable and have wide mesomorphic ranges. The synthesis of one member of each homologous series is described in detail. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 33b, 433—438 (1978); received December 22 1977 
  Published    1978 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Diphenyl-pyrimidines, Biphenylyl-pyrimidines, Mesophases 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/33/ZNB-1978-33b-0433.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1978-33b-0433 
 Volume    33 
16Author    Wilhelm Volker DahlhoffRequires cookie*
 Title    Amphiphilic Carbohydrate-Based Mesogens, 2 [1] Aldose Di-/i-alkyl Dithioacetals: Novel Double-Tailed Thermotropic Liquid Crystals  
 Abstract    Mercaptolyses of the pentoses [D-lyxose (1), D-xylose (2), L-arabinose (3)] and hexoses [D-man-nose (4), D-glucose (5), D-galactose (6)] with n-alkyl thiols having chain lengths > C 6 gives mesogenic aldose di-n-alkyl dithioacetals 7—12. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 42b, 661—662 (1987); received December 18 1986 
  Published    1987 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystals, Aldose Di-n-alkyl Dithioacetals, Double-Tailed Amphiphiles 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/42/ZNB-1987-42b-0661_n.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1987-42b-0661_n 
 Volume    42 
17Author    V. Salas-R, G. Eyesa, Soto-G, C. A. Arridob, Guilera0Requires cookie*
 Title    Synthesis and Characterization of Bis(3-chloro-4-dodecyloxyphenyl) Malondialdehyde Complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II)  
 Abstract    Bis (3-chloro-4-dodecyloxyphenyl) malondialdehyde copper(II), as well as its nickel(II) homologue have been synthesised. The copper(II) complex shows a narrow (15 °C) nematic phase below its clearing temperature. The nickel(II) complex is polymeric in nature. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 51b, 1679—1682 (1996); received July 8 1996 
  Published    1996 
  Keywords    Metallomesogens, Liquid Crystals, Copper Complexes, Dialdehydes, Formylation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/51/ZNB-1996-51b-1679.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1996-51b-1679 
 Volume    51 
18Author    C. Aguilera, M. Parra, G. FuentesRequires cookie*
 Title    Synthesis and Mesomorphic Properties of Polymethylene-a,u;-bis [2-thio- 5-(4',4"n-alcoxybenzoyIoxy)phenyl]-l,3,4-oxadiazole  
 Abstract    Three homologous series of polymethylene-a,i<;-bis[2-thio-5(4',4''n-alkoxybenzoyloxy)-phenyl]-l,3,4-oxadiazole (series 5 a, b, c), are reported.The compounds have identical meso-genic units at both ends of a spacer (i.e. they are twins). These twins possess a spacer of 6, 8 and 10 carbon atoms joined directly to the oxadiazole ring through sulphur atoms. The lateral alkylic chains vary between 6 and 10 carbon atoms.The presence of enantiotropic and m onotropic nematic phase is related to the length of the spacer group. The influence of molecular structure on the mesomorphic properties has been studied. Me­ somorphic properties and phase transitions have been determined using polarizing hot-stage microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 53b, 367—370 (1998); received May 15 1997 
  Published    1998 
  Keywords    Liquid Crystal, Twin Mesogens, Oxadiazole, M esomorphic Properties 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_B/53/ZNB-1998-53b-0367.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNB-1998-53b-0367 
 Volume    53 
19Author    V. Villa, F. Fischer3, J. ThiembRequires cookie*
 Abstract    o le k u la r e s V e rd rillu n g s v e rm ö g e n von K o h le n h y d ra t-D e riv a te n Helical Twisting Power of Carbohydrate Derivatives For the first time carbohydrate derivatives were systematically studied as doping material for a liquid crystalline phase. These compounds can exhibit a large twisting power. It may be controlled by the configurations of single chiral centers. Thus, a series of phenomena are realized in the cholesteric phase such as helix inversion, large or small temperature dependencies of the pitch, as well as broad blue phases. Durch Zugabe einer chiralen, löslichen Substanz zu einer nematischen Phase läßt sich die cholesterische Phase erzeugen [1], Neben neu synthetisierten Ver­ bindungen wurden auch zahlreiche Naturstoffe, vor­ nehmlich Isoprenoide eingesetzt. Kohlenhydratderi-vate wurden dagegen vermutlich aufgrund ihrer er­ heblichen Polarität bisher nicht in Betracht gezogen. Diese chemisch robusten und leicht zugänglichen Ver­ bindungen erscheinen ideal geeignet zu sein, da sich mit ihnen in einmaliger Weise alle stereochemischen Möglichkeiten realisieren lassen. Zur Überprüfung der Eignung von Kohlenhydrat-Derivaten als chirale Zusätze zu nematischen Phasen wurden 22 Mischungen untersucht. Als Wirtssubstanz diente jeweils 4-n-Butyloxy-phenyl-4'-n-hexyloxybenzoat (1, ZLI 1792). Als chirale Zusätze wurden gewählt (s. Tab. 1): 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 43a, 1119—1125 (1988); eingegangen am 30. September 1988 
  Published    1988 
  Keywords    Helical twisting power, carbohydrates, induced cholesteric phase, diastereomers, liquid crystals 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/43/ZNA-1988-43a-1119.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1988-43a-1119 
 Volume    43 
20Author    Ingo Dierking, Frank Gießelmann, Peter ZugenmaierRequires cookie*
 Abstract    n O p tic a l M e th o d f o r th e D e te r m in a tio n o f th e C h o le s te r ic P itc h in L iq u id C r y s ta ls Preparation of a cholesteric liquid crystalline phase in planar orienting liquid crystal cells exhibits discontinuous colour changes with temperature when viewed between crossed polarizers. The trans­ mission spectra of such a system can be described by a modified de Vries equation, with the bire­ fringence dispersion included in a simplified single-band model. With a suitable choice of the cell gap as compared to the cholesteric pitch, the procedure can be used as a new method to determine the temperature dependence of the cholesteric pitch. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 50a, 589—594 (1995); received December 17 1994 
  Published    1995 
  Keywords    Liquid crystal, cholesteric mesophase, pitch determination, birefringence dispersion, twist inversion 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_A/50/ZNA-1995-50a-0589.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNA-1995-50a-0589 
 Volume    50