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1997 (132)
1Author    Helmut KindiRequires cookie*
 Title    The Oxygen-Dependent Modification of Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids, the Different Way of Initiating Lipid Body Mobilization  
 Abstract    13-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, lipase, lipid hydroperoxide, lipid body, lipoxygenase, triacylglycerols For plant seedlings dependent on the breakdown of lipid reserves for gluconeogenesis the onset of lipid mobilization is a critically important process. Until recently, knowledge about the chemical mechanism of the initial breakdown steps has been limited, because the lipolytic activities, characterized by the intracellular localization and the type of substrate, have not always been found. As seedlings that depend on the reserves in lipid bodies may differ in morphology and biochemistry, it is likely that more than one pathway exists. Recent studies with cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cotyledons have shown that a lipid body-associated lipoxy­ genase, and an 0 2-dependent reaction, initiate both the destabilization of the phospholipid monolayer and the breakdown of triglycerides. Both types of reactions rely on the particular properties of a lipoxygenase isoform exclusively present in lipid bodies. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 1—8 (1997); received August 1/ 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0001.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0001 
 Volume    52 
2Author    Elsa Fuentes, AnaM. PlanchueloRequires cookie*
 Title    Sterol and Fatty Acid Patterns in Wild and Cultivated Species of Lupinus (Leguminosae)  
 Abstract    Seed oil components of wild and cultivated species of Lupinus were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The sterol and fatty acid patterns of Lupinus albescens and L. gib-ertianus that are considered important germoplasm resources of South America, are reported for the first time and compared with varieties of Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis. The taxonomic implication of seed oil composition was evaluated using a multivari­ ate analysis system. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 9—1 (1997); received July lO/October 25 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Lupinus, Seed Lipids, Fatty Acids, Sterols, GLC 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0009.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0009 
 Volume    52 
3Author    JohannesG. Zeidler3, H. Artm, K. Lichtenthaler2, H.Ulrich Mayb, FriederW. LichtenthalerbRequires cookie*
 Title    Is Isoprene Emitted by Plants Synthesized via the Novel Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate Pathway?  
 Abstract    The incorporation of deuterium labeled 1-deoxy-D-xylulose into isoprene, emitted by three higher plants upon illumination, was analysed by headspace GC-MS. A high extent of incor­ poration into isoprene was found, indicating that isoprene is synthesized in higher plants via the novel isopentenyl pyrophosphate pathway, of which l-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate is an intermediate. A new chemical synthesis o f methyl [ l-2H 1]-l-deoxy-a/ß-D-xyluloside from D-xylulose is presented. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 15—23 (1997); received December 3 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    [l-2Hi]-l-Deoxy-D-xylulose, Isoprene Emission, GC-MS Analysis, Isoprene Biosynthesis, Non-M evalonate IPP Pathway 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0015.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0015 
 Volume    52 
4Author    Govindjee3, C. Xub, J.J S Van RensencRequires cookie*
 Title    On the Requirement of Bound Bicarbonate for Photosystem II Activity  
 Abstract    Bicarbonate Effect, Electron Transport. IRG A , Monovalent Anions, Photosystem II In photosystem II of plants and cyanobacteria, but not in reaction centers of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, formate is known to inhibit electron flow which is reversed fully upon bicarbonate addition. At issue has been an old controversy whether this effect is on the acceptor or the donor side of photosystem II (PS II). We present here data on chloroplast thylakoids for donor side effects, that is accompanied by acceptor side effects, from measure­ ments on chlorophyll a fluorescence yield changes after light flashes 1-6. Further, sensitive differential infrared gas analyser measurem ents show that bicarbonate is indeed bound in both maize and pea thylakoid suspensions depleted of C 0 2 without any inhibitor; here, high rates of electron flow are associated with the presence of a maximum of 0.8 to 1.25 (corrected for residual activity) C 0 2 per photosystem II reaction center. It is suggested that bicarbonate bound to the acceptor side is required for photosystem II activity , both on the acceptor and the donor sides in the same experiment and in the same sample. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 24—32 (1997); received August 14/October 7 1996 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0024.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0024 
 Volume    52 
5Author    Angelika Preisfeld, Gabriele Scholten-Beck, HansGeorg RuppelRequires cookie*
 Title    Cell Surface Glycoconjugates of Euglena gracilis (Euglenozoa): Modifications under Potassium and Magnesium Deficiency  
 Abstract    /0ctober 29, 1996 Deficiency, Euglena gracilis, Lectin Assay, Mucilage Biochemical and ultrastructural examinations on the pellicle of autotrophically grown E u­ glena gracilis were carried out after three days under potassium and magnesium deficiency. Cell-surface changes were detected by lectin assay. Compared to cells grown in complete medium, deficient cells become larger in shape, accompanied by rising carbohydrate, chloro­ phyll and protein content, bind more and other lectin molecules: an increase of mainly galac­ tose and N-acetylgalactosamine receptors was observed. Investigations with the mucilage stains alcian blue and ruthenium red indicated that mucilaginous material is released under deficient conditions, whereas the control cells show a strong precipitate of these stains well inside the cells beneath the pellicle. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 33—41 (1997); received September 20 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0033.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0033 
 Volume    52 
6Author    M. T. Sáenz, M.C A Hum Ada, M.D G ArcíaRequires cookie*
 Title    Extracts from Viscum and Crataegus are Cytotoxic against Larynx Cancer Cells  
 Abstract    The effects of hexanoic extracts of Viscum cruciatum Sieber parasitic on Crataegus m ono­ gyna Jacq. (I), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. parasitized with Viscum cruciatum Sieber (II), and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. non-parasitized (III), and of a triterpenes enriched fractions iso­ lated from I, II and III (CFI, CFII, CFIII respectively), on the growth of HEp-2 cells have been evaluated. All the samples dem onstrated significant cytotoxic activity against cultured HEp-2 cells, and all of them showed a stronger in vitro activity than 6-mercaptopurine solu­ tion used as a positive control. With the hexanoic extracts I, II and III almost similar activity was obtained, but the hexanoic extract I showed comparably better results. Almost complete inhibition was observed with triterpenes-enriched fractions CFI. CFII and CFIII. at the dose 6 [ig/ml, after 72 h of treatm ent. The most intense response was obtained with the triterpenes-enriched fraction CFIII (from Crataegus monogyna non-parasitized), where the inhibition was 93%, but the fraction CFI and CFII showed similar inhibition (92% and 83%). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 42—44 (1997); received April 18/October 7. 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Viscum cruciatum Sieber, Crataegus monogyna Jacq, Cultured HEp-2 Cells, Triterpenes-Enriched Fractions 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0042.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0042 
 Volume    52 
7Author    Svoboda Tabakova, Nicolay DodoffRequires cookie*
 Title    Effect of Platinum(II) Complexes of 4-Methoxy-and 4-Chlorobenzoic Acid Hydrazides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae  
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 45 (1997) 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0045.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0045 
 Volume    52 
8Author    DanielN. Kushev, NadejdaC. Spassovska, SvetoslavI. Taxirov, KonstantinC. GrancharovRequires cookie*
 Title    Cytotoxicity and Antitumor Activity of Platinum(II) Complexes of Aromatic and Cycloalkanecarboxylic Acid Hydrazides  
 Abstract    N ew platinum(II) complexes of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid hydrazide (chcah) were synthe­ sized and characterized by elem ental analysis, IR. and 'H NM R spectra. Their inhibitory effects on cell growth and macromolecular synthesis o f Friend leukem ia cells in culture as well as the in vivo antitumor activity towards L1210 leukemia in mice were compared with those of complexes containing differently substituted aromatic acid hydrazides. Some of the complexes exhibited antineoplastic activity. N o correlation betw een the in vitro cytotoxicity and the in vivo antitumor activity was found. H owever, there was a relationship between the in vitro macromolecular synthesis inhibition profile and the in vivo antineoplastic effect, similar to that of cisplatin. On the other hand, only agents containing one ammine ligand were active in vivo. The substitution o f the aromatic ring by a cycloalkane residue increased significantly the antitumor effect, with [Pt(NH3)(chcah)Cl2] being the most active compound in this study. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 49 (1997); received August 1/September 18 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Platinum(II) Complexes, Cytotoxicity, Antitumor Activity, Macromolecular Synthesis Inhibition 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0049.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0049 
 Volume    52 
9Author    Sagrario Martín-Aragón, JuanaM. Benedí, AngelM. VillarRequires cookie*
 Title    Effects of Fraxetin on Glutathione Redox Status  
 Abstract    Fraxetin, Glutathione, Glutathione Reductase (G R), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) We have evaluated the effects of an oral treatment of mice with fraxetin (25 mg/kg for 30 days) on the glutathione system (GSH, GSSG, and GSSG/GSH ratio as stress index), gluta­ thione reductase (G R) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver supernatants from male C57BL/6J mice (18-month old). A significant antioxidant effect in vivo was found under this treatment by a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratio and an increased activity of GR compared with the control mice. GSSG rate and GSSG/GSH ratio were correlated with the decline of GPx activity. Our results of increased GR activity could be considered as a supercom pensa­ tion in glutathione redox status that involves a decrease in the accumulation of GSSG, as well as, in GSSG /G SH ratio. Finally, we suggest that this possible mechanism of supercom­ pensation could lead to an enhancement in the average life span. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 55 (1997); received July 23/October 4 1996 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0055.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0055 
 Volume    52 
10Author    P. Georgieva3, N. Ivanovska3, V. Bankovab, S. PopovbRequires cookie*
 Title    Anticomplement Activity of Lysine Complexes of Propolis Phenolic Constituents and Their Synthetic Analogs  
 Abstract    Propolis, Phenoic Constituents, A nticom plem ent Activity Several phenolic constituents of propolis and their synthetic analogs were derivatized with L-lysine. The ability of these com plexes to alter complement activity was estimated in vitro in human serum. The influence of selected com plexes on C3 hemolytic activity via classical pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (A P) and on zymosan-induced AP activation was determined. The results suppose that the anticomplement effect of the com plexes might be related to the interaction with C3 com plem ent component. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 60—6 (1997); received July 16/September 9 1996 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0060.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0060 
 Volume    52 
11Author    H. Kleszczyńska, J. Hładyszowski, H. Pruchnik, S. PrzestalskiRequires cookie*
 Title    Erythrocyte Hemolysis by Organic Tin and Lead Compounds  
 Abstract    The effect of trialkyllead and trialkyltin on pig erythrocyte hemolysis has been studied and compared. The results o f experiments showed that the hemolytic activity o f organoleads increases with their hydrophobicity and follows the sequence: triethyllead chloride < tri-n-propyllead chloride < tributyllead chloride. And similarly in the case of organotins: triethyltin chloride < tri-n-propyltin chloride < tributyltin chloride. Comparison of the hemolytic activity of organoleads and organotins indicates that the lead compounds exhibit higher hemolytic activity. The methods of quantum chemistry allowed to determine the maximum electric potential of the ions R3Pb+ and R3Sn+, and suggest a relationship betw een the potential and toxicity. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 65—6 (1997); received August 9/October 7 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Organoleads, Organotins, Erythrocyte Membrane, Hemolysis, Electric Potential 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0065.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0065 
 Volume    52 
12Author    C. Scheicka, G. Spitellera, C. DasenbrockbRequires cookie*
 Title    Thiodiacetic Acid -a Metabolite of Ethylene Oxide  
 Abstract    Ethylene Oxide, M etabolism of Ethylene Oxide, Thiodiacetic Acid, GC/MS Urine samples of premature babies contain high amounts of thiodiacetic acid (TD A). Since these pre-term infants are exposed to an increased oxygen atmosphere in the incubator, we supposed that these high levels of thiodiacetic acid might be produced from ethylene, gener­ ated in the course of lipid peroxidation processes. Considering that conversion of ethylene to ethylene oxide (E O) is well known in biology we investigated whether ethylene oxide is metabolised to thiodiacetic acid or not. Therefore Sprague-Dawley rats and NMRI mice were exposed to ethylene oxide for six hours. Urine specimens were collected after exposure and the amount of thiodiacetic acid was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrome­ try. The quantity of excreted T D A increased enormously compared to control samples. So thiodiacetic acid seem s to be a metabolite o f ethylene oxide in vivo. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 70—7 (1997); received September lO/October 22. 1996 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0070.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0070 
 Volume    52 
13Author    IgorZ. Zubrzycki3, Lothar BohmbRequires cookie*
 Title    Folding of the SPKK Rich Peptide in the Presence of the Octa-Oligonucleotide  
 Abstract    The nucleosom e contains o f 200 base pairs of D N A com plexed with four core histone complex: H 2A , H2B, H3, and H4. The fifth histone species, the HI histone, interacts with linker D N A connecting neighbouring nucleosomes. We have studied the influence o f the phosphorylation on the interactions of a repeating unit 15 residues long, containing the SPKK motif, the m otif thought to induce turn along peptides sequences, enclosed within the trout testis H I C-terminal domain with octanucleotide by means of the thermal denaturation and CD technique. The results indicate that the peptide preferentially binds to a single stranded oligonucleotide. It has been shown further that there is no ß structure present but a distorted helical structure has been detected. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 77—8 (1997); received March 11/August 19 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    N ucleosom e, Histone, Circular Dichroism, Thermal Denaturation 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0077.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0077 
 Volume    52 
14Author    Markus Durmab, Frank-Martin Haara, Michael Hausmann3, Horst Ludwigb, Christoph Cremer3Requires cookie*
 Title    Non-Enzymatic, Low Temperature Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Human Chromosomes with a Repetitive a-Satellite Probe  
 Abstract    In all D N A -D N A in situ hybridization (ISH) procedures described so far in the literature, the production of single-stranded target D N A sequences plays a decisive role. This can be achieved either by enzymatic treatment at physiological temperatures or by the separation of double-stranded D N A sequences. Denaturation by heat and chemical agents (e.g. for-mamide) is regarded as a prerequisite for the non-enzymatic ISH process. However, addi­ tional mechanisms of a non-enzymatic ISH procedure are conceivable which do not require high temperature treatment combined with formamide. Here, we report on a non-enzymatic, non-formamide, low temperature, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure which allowed a microscopic visualization and quantitative fluorescence analysis of the binding sites of a repetitive D N A probe. Following only probe denaturation at 94 °C, hybridization was performed at 52 °C for 30 min, i.e., at nearly physiological temperatures. Moreover, increas­ ing the hybridization time to 3 hours indicated that hybridization sites became also visible at 37 °C. Since the protocols are based on recently described Fast FISH developments, the technique will be called Low Temperature Fast-FISH (LTFF). 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 82—8 (1997); received October 30/November 22 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Chromosomes, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (Fast-FISH), Low Temperature Renaturation, Non-Enzymatic Treatment 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0082.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0082 
 Volume    52 
15Author    Amelia Thereza, Roberto Soares3, Ricardo Dias Lins3, RichardG. Longo3, Ricardo Arrattb, Ferreira3Requires cookie*
 Title    Plural Origins of Molecular Homochirality in Our Biota Part II. The Relative Stabilities of Homochiral and Mixed Oligoribotides and Peptides  
 Abstract    By computer simulations -molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics with the amber force field (Weiner et al., (1986), J. Comp. Chem. 7, 2 3 0 -2 5 2) -we have determined the stabilities of oligoribotide strands built with d -and L-riboses, and of peptide chains with d -and L-amino acid residues. In particular, complementary double-chains of oligoribotides were studied, since they are an important feature of the growing mechanism o f modern nucleic acids. Peptide chains on the other hand, grow without need of a template. We found that mixed oligoribotides are less stable than homochiral ones, and that this chiral effect is less noticeable in peptide chains. The results support the interpretation that L-riboses act as termi­ nators to the template-assisted growth of oligo-r-GD (enantiomeric cross-inhibition; Joyce et al., (1987), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. U S A 84, 4 398-4402). Based on this effect, a chemical pathway is proposed which could, under assumed prebiotic conditions, bypass the hindrance of homochiral growth. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 89 (1997); received July 10/September 4 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Chirality, Peptides, Oligoribotides, Computer Simulations 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0089.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0089 
 Volume    52 
16Author    Daniela Selmer3, Reingard Senekowitsch-Schmidtkeb, W. Schneider0, E. F. Elstner3Requires cookie*
 Title    Binding and Uptake of 125Iodine-Labelled, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein by Macrophages: Comparism of the Effects of a-Tocopherol, Probucol, Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and Magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate  
 Abstract    Macrophage, Low D ensity Lipoprotein Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of ^ io d in e -labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti­ oxidants a-tocopherol (a-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PP) and the magne-sium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, m ediated by the so-called "scavenger receptor" is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects o f the tested substances as follows: MPPG > PP > a-Toc > Prob. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 97 (1997); received September 13/October 21 1996 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0097.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0097 
 Volume    52 
17Author    N. A. Olasupo3, D. K. 01ukoyab, S. A. OdunfacRequires cookie*
 Title    Identification of Lactobacillus Species Associated with Selected African Fermented Foods  
 Abstract    Two hundred isolates of Lactobacillus were obtained from seven indigenous fermented foods namely: 'fufu' (fermented cassava), 'iru' (fermented African locust bean), 'kenkey' and 'ogi' (fermented maize), 'kunu-zarki' (ferm ented m illet), 'ugba' (ferm ented African oil bean) and 'wara' (fermented skimmed cow milk). Lactobacillus species identified were L acto­ bacillus casei (17.0%), L. lactis (4.5%), L. plantarum (41.5%), L. brevis (11.5%), L. jensenii (5.5%), L. acidophilus (3.5%) L. cellobiosus (5.0%), L. delbrueckii (2.5%), L. salivarius (3.5%), L. leichmannii (3.5%) and L. ferm entum (2.0%). The com m onest species isolated was L. plantarum. This paper highlight the importance o f Lactobacillus in the processing of African fermented foods. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 105 (1997); received June 24/August 27 1996 Lactobacillus African Fermented Food 
  Published    1997 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0105.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0105 
 Volume    52 
18Author    Jürgen Jacob3, Gottfried Raab3, Udo HoppebRequires cookie*
 Title    Surface Lipids of the Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina L.)  
 Abstract    Surface lipids obtained from the silverfish by short-term solvent extraction contain ali­ phatic hydrocarbons, monoester waxes, cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, free cholesterol, and free fatty acids. Together, cholesteryl esters and free cholesterol account for >30% of the total lipids. As found for other arthropods living in aquatic or moist environments unsaturated homo-logues predominate among the acidic constituents. The cuticular lipid composition o f silverfish resembles that of other more primitive arthro­ pod forms such as stoneflies and dragonflies. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 109—113 (1997); received October 4/October 29 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Insects, Zygentoma, Cuticular Lipids, Chemotaxonomy, 3-Methylalkanes 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0109.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0109 
 Volume    52 
19Author    Jürgen Jacob3, Ulrich Eigenerb, Udo HoppebRequires cookie*
 Title    The Structure of Preen Gland Waxes from Pelecaniform Birds Containing 3,7-Dimethyloctan-l-ol -an Active Ingredient against Dermatophytes  
 Abstract    A biologically active principle has been isolated from the uropygial gland secretion of the gannet (Sula bassana) exhibiting growth inhibitory activity for Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, moulds and, in particular, for dermatophytes.The feather lipids o f this species consist of monoester waxes predominantly composed of 3,x-dimethylalkanols esterified with fatty acids belonging to homologous series o f 2-and 3-methyl-, 2,x-and 3,x-dimethyl-as well as 2,x,y-and 3,x,y-trimethyl-substituted alkanoic acids. For chemosystematic reasons other pelecani­ form species (Pelecanus crispus, Pelecanus onocrotalus, Phaeton lepturus) and one gaviiform species (Gavia stellata) have also been analysed. The pattern o f their preen wax constituents suggest to assume that the Pelecaniformes are polyphyletic with gannets and cormorants being closely related, whereas pelicans and tropic birds are different, both from the former and from each other. Pelicans resemble very much the grebes, while tropic birds seem to be more closely related to the charadriiform, alciform, and possibly to the gaviiform birds. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 114—123 (1997); received September 2/October 18 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Uropygial Gland Secretion Antimicrobial Activity, Dermatophytes, Pelecaniformes, Branched Fatty Acids 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0114.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0114 
 Volume    52 
20Author    Axel SchmidRequires cookie*
 Title    A Visually Induced Switch in Mode of Locomotion of a Spider  
 Abstract    The spider Cupiennius salei Keys. (Araneae, Ctenidae) is a nocturnal hunter living on monocotyledones. It does not build webs for prey capture. During the day it remains in its retreat and during dusk it begins to hunt for prey or to search for mates. C. salei is well equipped with mechanosensory systems to detect air-or substrate-borne vibrations elicited by prey or predators. If none of them produce either air movements or substrate vibrations, and the light intensity is below the threshold (0.1 lx), the animal is virtually " blind" . There­ fore a hypothetical, additional sensory input should exist, which is used only in complete darkness. The animal was tested on a locomotion compensator were it performs constant walks towards a visual target. Three different light intensities were used (bright 200 lx, dim 0.1 lx, and dark at 950 nm, which is outside the spectral sensitivity range of the animal). A t bright and dim illumination the animal walked in the alternating tetrapod gait towards the target. In complete " darkness" the walk was no longer directed and the animal changed its gait and continued walking on only six legs using the first pair as guide-sticks. If the first pair is missing, the second cannot replace this function. This shows a twofold use of the first pair o f legs as ordinary walking legs and as guide-sticks or " antennae" . Therefore one can assume that visual input causes a behavioral change, which can not be explained by a fixed locomo­ tion pattern but by adaptive changes caused by visual inputs. 
  Reference    Z. Naturforsch. 52c, 124—128 (1997); received May 3/September 16 1996 
  Published    1997 
  Keywords    Cupiertnius solei Locomotion, Gait, Visual System, Walking Mode 
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 TEI-XML for    default:Reihe_C/52/ZNC-1997-52c-0124.pdf 
 Identifier    ZNC-1997-52c-0124 
 Volume    52 
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